[(1S,2R,3R)-7-Hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6,8-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl]methyl β-D-glucopyranoside/(+)-lyoniresinol-3a-O-β-glucoside/β-D-Glucopyranoside, ((1S,2R,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6,8-dimethoxy-2-naphthalenyl)methyl/(+)-lyoniresinol-3-α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside/(+)-Lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-glucopyranoside/β-D-Glucopyranoside, [(1S,2R,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6,8-dimethoxy-2-naphthalenyl]methyl
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
797.2±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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The genus Carebara is revised for the Malagasy region, and based on the examination of over 10,000 specimens, twenty-three species are recognized. Twenty one of these are described as new (C. bara sp. n., C. berivelo sp. n., C. betsi sp. n., C. creolei sp. n., C. demeter sp. n., C. dota sp. n., C. hainteny sp. n., C. hiragasy sp. n., C. jajoby sp. n., C. kabosy sp. n., C. lova sp. n., C. mahafaly sp. n., C. malagasy sp. n., C. omasi sp. n., C. placida sp. n., C. raberi sp. n., C. salegi sp. n., C. sampi sp. n., C. tana sp. n., C. tanana sp. n., C. vazimba sp. n.), and two are redescribed, C. grandidieri Forel (= C. voeltzkowi Forel n. syn.) and C. nosindambo Forel. A lectotype is designated for C. nosindambo. C. creolei sp. n. is known only from Mauritius and Seychelles, C. grandidieri Forel is distributed in Comoros, Madagascar and Mayotte, and the other twenty-one species are endemic to Madagascar. Most of the Carebara species recorded in this work are endemic to a specific habitat (ecoregion), but some of them (C. bara sp. n., C. grandidieri Forel, C. jajoby sp. n., C. kabosy sp. n., and C. nosindambo Forel) are widespread within Madagascar across all major habitats. The worker caste of Carebara can be differentiated from other genera in the Myrmicinae subfamily by the presence of the following combination of characters: antennae of eight to eleven segments, with a two-segmented club; anterior clypeal margin without central isolated seta (rarely present in some species or specimens), and usually with four distinct setae; mandibles with four to seven teeth (except in one species from Ghana – C. crigensis with three teeth); and palp formula 2,2 or 1,2. We report that almost all Carebara species found in the Malagasy region have intermediates (distinct forms) in the major worker subcaste, with the largest major workers showing remnants of queen flight sclerites and ocelli. The widespread presence of intermediates in the major worker subcaste expands the morphological boundaries of Carebara. We present an overview of the natural history of Carebara in the Malagasy region, an illustrated key for the identification of the known Malagasy species of Carebara, as well as high-resolution images and distribution maps. Unique identifiers are used for all specimens studied, including type material, and the raw data that forms the basis of this study are available on www.antweb.org (open access).
Carebara, Crematogastrini, Intercastes, Intermediates, Madagascar, Malagasy region, Pheidologeton, Polymorphic, Taxonomy
Taxonomy of the ant genus Carebara Westwood (Formicidae, Myrmicinae) in the Malagasy Region
Frank Azorsa1,2 and Brian L. Fisher1
Over the course of a year, more than 20,000 patients in Taiwan require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database for patients between 2005 and 2011 were used to conduct a retrospective analysis on ventilator dependence. The study subjects were PMV patients aged <17 years in Taiwan. A multiple regression model employing general estimating equations was applied to investigate the factors affecting the use of medical resources by children and adolescent PMV patients. A Cox proportional hazard model was incorporated to explore the factors affecting the survival of these patients. Data were collected for a total of 1,019 children and adolescent PMV patients in Taiwan. The results revealed that the average number of outpatient visits per subject was 32.1 times per year, whereas emergency treatments averaged 1.56 times per year per subject and hospitalizations averaged 160.8 days per year per subject. Regarding average annual medical costs, hospitalizations accounted for the largest portion at NT$821,703 per year per subject, followed by outpatient care at NT$123,136 per year per subject and emergency care at NT$3,806 per year per subject. The demographic results indicated that the patients were predominately male (61.24%), with those under 1 year of age accounting for the highest percentage (36.38%). According to the Kaplan—Meier curve, the 1-year and 5-year mortality rates of the patients were approximately 32% and 47%, respectively. The following factors affecting the survival rate were considered: age, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), diagnosis type necessitating ventilator use, and whether an invasive ventilator was used. This study investigated the use of medical resources and the survival rates of children and adolescent PMV patients. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for the National Health Insurance Administration in promoting its future integrated pilot projects on ventilator dependency.
Survival and medical utilization of children and adolescents with prolonged ventilator-dependent and associated factors
Szu-Chi Pai,1,2 Pei-Tseng Kung,#3 Wen-Yu Chou,1 Tsunghuai Kuo,4 and Wen-Chen Tsai#1,* Yu Ru Kou, Editor
Obstetric hemorrhage is one of the most common causes of obstetrical morbidity and mortality, and transfusion is the most important management for hemorrhage. The aim of our study was to investigate the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy risk factors for peripartum transfusion.
Women who delivered a baby from 2010 to 2014 in Korea and participated in the Korean National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children were included. To analyze pre-pregnant risk factors for peripartum transfusion, an additional analysis was done for women who underwent a National Health Screening Examination within 1 year before pregnancy, including maternal waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, laboratory tests and history of smoking. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk factors for peripartum transfusion.
Of the total 1,980,126 women who met the inclusion criteria, 36,868 (1.86%) were transfused at peripartum. In a multivariable regression model, the pregnancy risk factors for peripartum transfusion included maternal age above 35 years [odds ratio (OR): 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.50], preterm birth (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 2.15-2.65), and maternal hypertension (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 2.24-2.77). Pre-pregnancy risk factors including fasting glucose level of more than 126 mg/dL (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.02-1.20), current-smoker status (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.06-1.37), and waist-circumference less than 80 cm (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06-1.30) were independently associated with peripartum blood transfusion.
Several pre-pregnancy and pregnancy risk factors were associated with peripartum blood transfusion. Some identified factors are modifiable before conception, and our study validated peripartum blood transfusion as a form of triage.
Peripartum, Blood transfusion, Postpartum hemorrhage
Predicting peripartum blood transfusion: focusing on pre-pregnancy characteristics
Yung-Taek Ouh,1 Kyu-Min Lee,2 Ki Hoon Ahn,1 Soon-Cheol Hong,1 Min-Jeong Oh,1 Hai-Joong Kim,1 Sung Won Han,corresponding author2 and Geum Joon Chocorresponding author1