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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:87264-30-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
This phase II, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the immunogenicity of RTS,S vaccines containing Adjuvant System AS01 or AS02 as compared with non-adjuvanted RTS,S in healthy, malaria-naïve adults (NCT00443131). Thirty-six subjects were randomized (1:1:1) to receive RTS,S/AS01, RTS,S/AS02, or RTS,S/saline at months 0, 1, and 2. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) and hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigens were assessed and cell-mediated immune responses evaluated by flow cytometry using intracellular cytokine staining on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Anti-CS antibody avidity was also characterized. Safety and reactogenicity after each vaccine dose were monitored. One month after the third vaccine dose, RTS,S/AS01 (160.3 EU/mL [95%CI: 114.1-225.4]) and RTS,S/AS02 (77.4 EU/mL (95%CI: 47.3-126.7)) recipients had significantly higher anti-CS antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) than recipients of RTS,S/saline (12.2 EU/mL (95%CI: 4.8-30.7); P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0011, respectively). The anti-CS antibody GMT was significantly higher with RTS,S/AS01 than with RTS,S/AS02 (P = 0.0135). Anti-CS antibody avidity was in the same range in all groups. CS- and HBs-specific CD4+ T cell responses were greater for both RTS,S/AS groups than for the RTS,S/saline group. Reactogenicity was in general higher for RTS,S/AS compared with RTS,S/saline. Most grade 3 solicited adverse events (AEs) were of short duration and grade 3 solicited general AEs were infrequent in the 3 groups. No serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, in comparison with non-adjuvanted RTS,S, both RTS,S/AS vaccines exhibited better CS-specific immune responses. The anti-CS antibody response was significantly higher with RTS,S/AS01 than with RTS,S/AS02. The adjuvanted vaccines had acceptable safety profiles.
adjuvant, AS01, AS02, vaccine, malaria, cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity
Evaluation of the immune response to RTS,S/AS01 and RTS,S/AS02 adjuvanted vaccines Randomized, double-blind study in malaria-naïve adults
Geert Leroux-Roels,1,* Isabel Leroux-Roels,1 Frederic Clement,1 Opokua Ofori-Anyinam,2 Marc Lievens,2 Erik Jongert,2 Philippe Moris,2 W Ripley Ballou,2 and Joe Cohen2
The eye movement system reacts very systematically to visual transients that are presented during the planning phase of a saccade. About 50 to 70 ms after the onset of a transient, the number of saccades that are started decreases, a phenomenon that has been termed saccadic inhibition. Saccades started just before this time window are hypometric compared to regular saccades, presumably because the presentation of the transient stops them in mid-flight. Recent research investigating the properties of repeated saccades to fixed locations found that these early saccades were additionally faster than expected from the main sequence relation, suggesting that a saccadic dead time during which saccades can no longer be modified does not exist. The present study investigated the properties of saccades to random locations in a guided saccade task. As expected, early saccades starting just before the saccadic inhibition dip in frequency were hypometric. Their velocity profiles implied that these saccades were actively stopped after reaching peak velocity. However, the peak velocities of these saccades did not generally deviate from the main sequence relation. The question whether an active stop of early saccades is incompatible with the idea of a saccadic dead time is open to debate.
Saccadic inhibition, Main sequence, Eye movements
Saccadic inhibition in a guided saccade task
Isabel Dombrowecorresponding author
Vaccination-impact studies of the live-attenuated pentavalent oral vaccine Rotateq® have demonstrated that the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis has been reduced significantly after the introduction of RotaTeq® vaccination, but less is known about the benefit of this vaccination on hospital overcrowding.
As part of an observational surveillance conducted during the RV seasons 2000/2001 to 2011/2012, we analysed hospital discharge data collected retrospectively from two Finnish hospitals (Oulu and Tampere), concerning ICD 10 codes A00-09 (acute gastroenteritis, AGE) and A08.0 (rotaviral acute gastroenteritis RV AGE). We estimated the reduction in the number of beds occupied and analysed the bed occupancy rate, for RV AGE and all cause AGE, among 0-16 year-old children, before and after the implementation of the RV immunisation program.
The rate of bed days occupied for RV AGE was reduced by 86% (95% CI 66%-94%) in Tampere and 79% (95% CI 47%-92%) in Oulu after RV vaccination implementation. For all cause AGE, reduction was 50% (95% CI 29% to 65%) in Tampere and 70% (95% CI 58% to 79%) in Oulu. Results were similar among 0-2 year-old children. This effect was also observed on overcrowding in both hospitals, with a bed occupancy rate for all cause AGE >25% in only 1% of the time in Tampere and 9% in Oulu after the implementation of the immunisation program, compared to 13% and 48% in the pre-vaccination period respectively. After extrapolation to the whole country, the annual number of prevented hospitalizations for all cause AGE in the post-vaccination period in Finland was estimated at 1,646 and 2,303 admissions for 0-2 and 0-16 year-old children respectively.
This study demonstrated that universal RV vaccination is associated with a clear decrease in the number of bed days and occupancy rates for RV AGE and all cause AGE. Positive consequences include increase in quality of care and a better healthcare management during winter epidemics.
Hospital bed occupancy for rotavirus and all cause acute gastroenteritis in two Finnish hospitals before and after the implementation of the national rotavirus vaccination program with RotaTeq®
Susanne Hartwig,corresponding author Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Perrine Bertet, Maria Hemming, and Timo Vesikari