2,3',4,4',6-Pentahydroxybenzophenone/Patent Fustin/Maklurin/Morintannic acid/morintanico acid/C.I. Natural Yellow 11 (VAN)/Methanone, (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-/2,4,6,3',4'-pentahydroxy-benzophenone/Fustic extract/Maclurin/2,4,6,3',4'-Pentahydroxy-benzophenon/Laguncurin/Moritannic acid/3,4,2',4',6'-pentahydroxybenzophenone/C.I. Natural Yellow 11/Kino-yellow/(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)methanone
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Recent reports indicated that ROS is closely related with cancer metastasis. ROS targets major signaling molecules which are known to be involved in migration and invasion of cancer cells. Here we report that maclurin, a major phenolic component of ethanol extracted mulberry twigs, exerts anti-metastatic effect in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Maclurin suppresses intracellular ROS level in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Also, maclurin down-regulates Src and ERK, which are well known to be regulated with redox state. Suppressed Src/FAK and ERK signalings activate GSK3-β, thus inhibiting nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. As a result, transcriptional expressions of two major gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were significantly down-regulated. Consequently, migration and invasion of A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells were attenuated. Anti-metastatic effect of maclurin on A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells were diminished by the treatment of hydrogen peroxide, thus further implicating that the effect of maclurin may be strongly related with its anti-oxidative activity. Thus, our data indicate that the anti-metastatic effect of maclurin is exerted by anti-oxidative activity and inhibition of Src/FAK-ERK-β-catenin signaling pathway.
Maclurin suppresses migration and invasion of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells via anti-oxidative activity and inhibition of the Src/FAK-ERK-β-catenin pathway.
Ku MJ1, Kim JH, Lee J, Cho JY, Chun T, Lee SY.
Maclurin, an exceptional member of phytophenol family, was found to effectively protect against mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) oxidative damage induced by hydroxyl radical (OH) at 62.1-310.5 μM. Antioxidant assays indicated that maclurin could efficiently protect DNA from OH-induced damage at 114.6-382.2 μM, and scavenge OH, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical), ABTS(+) (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical), and bind Cu(2+) (IC50 values were respectively 122.87 ± 10.14, 10.15 ± 0.85, 0.97 ± 0.07, and 133.95 ± 11.92 μM). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the end-product of maclurin reaction with DPPH clearly suggested that maclurin (m/z = 261.12 [M-H](-)) donated two hydrogen atoms to DPPH (m/z = 394.06 [M](+)) to form ortho-benzoquinone moiety (λmax = 364 nm; m/z = 259.06 [M-H](-), loss of m/z = 28) and DPPH2 molecule (m/z = 395.03, 396.01), via hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) or sequential electron (e) proton transfer (SEPT), not radical adduct formation (RAF) mechanisms. Therefore, we concluded that: (i) maclurin can effectively protect against OH-induced damages to DNA and MSCs, thereby it may have a therapeutic potential in prevention of many diseases or MSCs transplantation; (ii) a possible mechanism for maclurin to protect against oxidative damages is OH radical-scavenging; (iii) maclurin scavenges OH possibly through metal-chelating, and direct radical-scavenging which is mainly via HAT or SEPT mechanisms; and (iv) the protective and antioxidant effects of maclurin can be primarily attributed to ortho-dihydroxyl groups, and ultimately to the relative stability of the ortho-benzoquinone form.
Copyright ? 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antioxidant mechanism; Hydrogen atom transfer HAT; Hydroxyl radical; Maclurin; Ortho-benzoquinone; Sequential electron proton transfer SEPT
Maclurin protects against hydroxyl radical-induced damages to mesenchymal stem cells: antioxidant evaluation and mechanistic insight.
Li X1, Gao Y2, Li F3, Liang A2, Xu Z4, Bai Y3, Mai W2, Han L2, Chen D5.