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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:207511-07-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Rationale: There is poor understanding about protective immunity and the pathogenesis of cavitation in patients with tuberculosis.
Objectives: To map pathophysiological pathways at anatomically distinct positions within the human tuberculosis cavity.
Methods: Biopsies were obtained from eight predetermined locations within lung cavities of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis undergoing therapeutic surgical resection (n = 14) and healthy lung tissue from control subjects without tuberculosis (n = 10). RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and bacterial load determination were performed at each cavity position. Differentially expressed genes were normalized to control subjects without tuberculosis, and ontologically mapped to identify a spatially compartmentalized pathophysiological map of the cavity. In silico perturbation using a novel distance-dependent dynamical sink model was used to investigate interactions between immune networks and bacterial burden, and to integrate these identified pathways.
Measurements and Main Results: The median (range) lung cavity volume on positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans was 50 cm3 (15-389 cm3). RNA sequence reads (31% splice variants) mapped to 19,049 annotated human genes. Multiple proinflammatory pathways were upregulated in the cavity wall, whereas a downregulation “sink” in the central caseum-fluid interface characterized 53% of pathways including neuroendocrine signaling, calcium signaling, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, retinoic acid-mediated apoptosis, and RIG-I-like receptor signaling. The mathematical model demonstrated that neuroendocrine, protein kinase C-θ, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 pathways, and macrophage and neutrophil numbers, had the highest correlation with bacterial burden (r > 0.6), whereas T-helper effector systems did not.
Conclusions: These data provide novel insights into host immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related cavitation. The pathways defined may serve as useful targets for the design of host-directed therapies, and transmission prevention interventions.
transcriptomics, pulmonary tuberculosis, in silico analysis, TB cavitation
Spatial Network Mapping of Pulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Cavities Using RNA Sequencing
Keertan Dheda,1,2,* Laura Lenders,1 Shashikant Srivastava,3,4 Gesham Magombedze,3 Helen Wainwright,5 Prithvi Raj,4 Stephen J. Bush,3 Gabriele Pollara,6 Rachelle Steyn,7 Malika Davids,1 Anil Pooran,1 Timothy Pennel,8 Anthony Linegar,8 Ruth McNerney,1 Loven Moodley,8 Jotam G. Pasipanodya,3 Carolin T. Turner,6 Mahdad Noursadeghi,6 Robin M. Warren,9 Edward Wakeland,4 and Tawanda Gumbocorresponding author1,3,*
2019 Aug 1;
Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today’s industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains.
Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts
Brigida Gallone,1,2,3,4,11 Jan Steensels,1,2,11 Troels Prahl,5 Leah Soriaga,6 Veerle Saels,1,2 Beatriz Herrera-Malaver,1,2 Adriaan Merlevede,1,2 Miguel Roncoroni,1,2 Karin Voordeckers,1,2 Loren Miraglia,8 Clotilde Teiling,9 Brian Steffy,9 Maryann Taylor,10 Ariel Schwartz,6 Toby Richardson,6 Christopher White,5 Guy Baele,7 Steven Maere,3,4,∗ and Kevin J. Verstrepen1,2,12,∗∗
2016 Sep 8
The prevalences of parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of liver during meat inspection, and their economic implication were estimated in slaughtered animals in Iran. The liver organ was examined for the presence of parasitic lesions during meat inspection in cattle, camel, buffalo, sheep and goat. The parasitic agents observed in the condemned livers of these animals were Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cyst. The average percentages of liver condemnation for three years period by Fasciola spp., D. dendriticum, Cysticerci and hydatid cyst were 2.12, 2.71, 0.04, and 2.88 %, respectively. The mean prevalence of Fasciola spp. in cattle, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo was 4.32, 1.85, 1.56, 1.31 and 9.31 %, respectively and the mean prevalence of D. dendriticum in those animals were 3.65, 2.66, 2.19, 5.09 and 3.90 %, respectively. Also, the mean prevalence of Cysticerci and hydatid cyst were 0.13 and 3.72 % in cattle, 0.04 and 2.85 % in sheep, 0.05 and 2.40 % in goat, 0.02 and 8.22 % in camel and 0.001 and 5.48 % in buffalo, respectively. The most contributing parasites to marketable liver condemnation were hydatid cyst in sheep, goat and camel and Fasciola spp. in cattle and buffalo, and the average annual cost for condemned livers was 8.2 million USD.
Parasites, Liver, Slaughtered animals, Public health, Prevalence, Economic losses
Liver condemnation and economic losses due to parasitic infections in slaughtered animals in Iran
Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki,corresponding author Eshrat Beigom Kia, and Morteza Raei