White crystalline powder
α-D-Glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-α-D-glucopyranose/Amylotetraose/malto-tetraose/α-D-Glucopyranose, O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-/Maltotetraose/Maltoteraose/a-D-Glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-a-D-glucopyranose/MALTOTETRAOSE,DP4,100MG NEAT
1030.9±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:34612-38-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides. ESI generated [M + Met]+, [M + 2Met]2+, [M + Met]2+, [M + Met – H]+, and [M + Met – 2H]+ most intensely along with low intensity nitrate adducts, depending on the metal and sugar ionized. The ability of these metal ions to produce oligosaccharide adduct ions by ESI had the general trend: Ca(II) > Mg(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Na(I) > K(I) > Al(III) ≈ Fe(III) ≈ Cr(III). Although trivalent metals were utilized, no triply charged ions were formed. Metal cations allowed for high ESI signal intensity without permethylation. ETD and CID on [M + Met]2+ produced various glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, with ETD producing more cross-ring and internal ions, which are useful for structural analysis. Product ion intensities varied based on glycosidic-bond linkage and identity of monosaccharide sub-unit, and metal adducts. ETD and CID showed high fragmentation efficiency, often with complete precursor dissociation, depending on the identity of the adducted metal ion. Loss of water was occasionally observed, but elimination of small neutral molecules was not prevalent. For both ETD and CID, [M + Co]2+ produced the most uniform structurally informative dissociation with all oligosaccharides studied. The ETD and CID spectra were complementary. Graphical Abstract
Carbohydrates; Collision-induced dissociation; Electron transfer dissociation; Metallated oligosacchardies; Oligosaccharides
Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Underivatized Metallated Oligosaccharides.
Schaller-Duke RM1, Bogala MR1, Cassady CJ2.
Catabolite repression is a mechanism that enables bacteria to control carbon utilization. As part of this global regulatory network, components of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system inhibit the uptake of less favorable sugars when a preferred carbon source such as glucose is available. This process is termed inducer exclusion. In bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, HPr, phosphorylated at serine 46 (P-Ser46-HPr) is the key player but its mode of action is elusive. To address this question at the level of purified protein components, we have chosen a homolog of the Escherichia coli maltose/maltodextrin ATP-binding cassette transporter from Lactobacillus casei (MalE1-MalF1G1K12 ) as a model system. We show that the solute binding protein, MalE1, binds linear and cyclic maltodextrins but not maltose. Crystal structures of MalE1 complexed with these sugars provide a clue why maltose is not a substrate. P-Ser46-HPr inhibited MalE1/maltotetraose-stimulated ATPase activity of the transporter incorporated in proteoliposomes. Furthermore, cross-linking experiments revealed that P-Ser46-HPr contacts the nucleotide-binding subunit, MalK1, in proximity to the Walker A motif. However, P-Ser46-HPr did not block binding of ATP to MalK1. Together, our findings provide first biochemical evidence that P-Ser-HPr arrests the transport cycle by preventing ATP hydrolysis at the MalK1 subunits of the transporter.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Inducer exclusion in Firmicutes: insights into the regulation of a carbohydrate ATP binding cassette transporter from Lactobacillus casei BL23 by the signal transducing protein P-Ser46-HPr.
Homburg C1, Bommer M2, Wuttge S1, Hobe C1, Beck S3, Dobbek H2, Deutscher J4,5, Licht A1, Schneider E1.
Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of bamboo stem extract (BSE) on motility and ICAM-1 expression by using mouse MOVAS-1 cells. Active constituents of BSE exhibiting an inhibitory activity on TNF-α-induced ICAM1 expression were identified using HPLC.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The effects of BSE on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced migration, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced expression of ICAM-1, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation were investigated. BSE inhibited migration of MOVAS-1 cells and sprout formation by mouse aorta explants. Reverse transcription PCR analysis and promoter reporter assays revealed that BSE suppressed ICAM-1 expression by inhibiting NF-κB activity. In addition, BSE reduced adhesion between VSMCs and monocytes. Several oligosaccharides were identified in BSE. Among the oligosaccharides contained in BSE, maltotetraose and stachyose were potent inhibitors of TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression. We confirmed that maltotetraose reduced PDGF-induced sprout formation by mouse aorta explants and inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 expression in MOVAS-1 cells.
The BSE constituent maltotetraose may be beneficial in the suppression of early atherosclerosis development and could be developed as a dietary supplement for cardiovascular health.
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Atherosclerosis; Bamboo stem extract; Platelet-derived growth factor; Vascular smooth muscle cells; intercellular adhesion molecule-1
Inhibition of PDGF-induced migration and TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression by maltotetraose from bamboo stem extract (BSE) in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells.
Shin SY1,2, Jung YJ2, Yong Y3, Cho HJ3, Lim Y3, Lee YH4,5.
Maltotetraose can be used as a substrate for the enzyme-coupled determination of amylase activity in biological fluids.