White crystalline powder
Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. ex Fisch. et Mey
Manninotriose is a novel and important player in the RFO(Raffinose family oligosaccharides) metabolism of red dead deadnettle; potential to improve the side effects of MTX for ALL treatment.
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A chronically elevated glucocorticoid level impairs memory and cognition. Manninotriose is the main oligosaccharide of Prepared Radix Rehmanniae, and Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is the primary ingredient of Astragali Radix; they have been reported to possess neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Manninotriose and AS-IV on corticosterone (CORT) induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons from newborn Sprague Dawley rats were treated with CORT in the absence or presence of Manninotriose and AS-IV. Cell Counting Kit-8 experiments and fluorescein diacetate (FDA)/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were conducted to assess the activity and survival rate of neurons. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), zinc finger protein (Zif268) and synapsin 1 (SYN1). DNA methylation of the gene promoter was assessed by bisulfite sequencing (BSP) analysis. The results demonstrated that pre-treatment with Manninotriose and AS-IV significantly improved cell viability and survival rate, and ameliorated the downregulation of GR, Zif268 and SYN1 genes in CORT injured neurons. BSP analysis revealed that CORT was able to improve the CpG island methylation rate of SYN1. AS-IV was observed to decrease the hypermethylation of the SYN1 gene induced by CORT. The results of the present study indicated that Manninotriose and AS-IV may have a protective effect against CORT-induced damage and the downregulation of learning and memory associated genes in hippocampal neurons. Regulation of DNA methylation may be important in the pharmaceutical activities of AS-IV. Thus, Manninotriose and AS-IV may be effective agents against learning and memory impairment.
Astragaloside IV; DNA methylation; Manninotriose; corticosterone; learning and memory relevant genes
In Vitro Neuroprotection of Rat Hippocampal Neurons by Manninotriose and Astragaloside IV Against Corticosterone-Induced Toxicity.
Zheng J1, Yin F2, Jin G3, Zhang X4, Zhang L5, Gong Z6, Kang X7, Hu H8.
2018 Dec 17
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
There is a great need to search for natural compounds with superior prebiotic, antioxidant and immunostimulatory properties for use in (food) applications. Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) show such properties. Moreover, they contribute to stress tolerance in plants, acting as putative membrane stabilizers, antioxidants and signalling agents.
A large-scale soluble carbohydrate screening was performed within the plant kingdom. An unknown compound accumulated to a high extent in early-spring red deadnettle (Lamium purpureum) but not in other RFO plants. The compound was purified and its structure was unravelled with NMR. Organs and organ parts of red deadnettle were carefully dissected and analysed for soluble sugars. Phloem sap content was analysed by a common EDTA-based method.
Early-spring red deadnettle stems and roots accumulate high concentrations of the reducing trisaccharide manninotriose (Galα1,6Galα1,6Glc), a derivative of the non-reducing RFO stachyose (Galα1,6Galα1,6Glcα1,2βFru). Detailed soluble carbohydrate analyses on dissected stem and leaf sections, together with phloem sap analyses, strongly suggest that stachyose is the main transport compound, but extensive hydrolysis of stachyose to manninotriose seems to occur along the transport path. Based on the specificities of the observed carbohydrate dynamics, the putative physiological roles of manninotriose in red deadnettle are discussed.
It is demonstrated for the first time that manninotriose is a novel and important player in the RFO metabolism of red dead deadnettle. It is proposed that manninotriose represents a temporary storage carbohydrate in early-spring deadnettle, at the same time perhaps functioning as a membrane protector and/or as an antioxidant in the vicinity of membranes, as recently suggested for other RFOs and fructans. This novel finding urges further research on this peculiar carbohydrate on a broader array of RFO accumulators.
Manninotriose is a major carbohydrate in red deadnettle (Lamium purpureum, Lamiaceae).
dos Santos R1, Vergauwen R, Pacolet P, Lescrinier E, Van den Ende W.
To optimize the processing of mannatriose preparation from stachyose by acidolysis.
An orthogonal experiment was performed to select a better condition of acidolysis. Fructoes and stachyose was determined by HPLC.
Among the factors set in the present work, temperature and time have little influence on the acidolysis, while the effect of pH value was significant (P < 0.05). The best processing was selected as heating stachosy solution for 12h at pH 2.5 and 90 degrees C.
It is practicable to prepare manninotriose from stachyoses by acidolysis.
[Optimization of manninotriose preparation from stachoyse].
Wu WH1, Wen XS, Zhao Y.