Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.
Mesaconinean, an ingredient from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., has cardiac effect.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
617.1±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:6792-09-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Four years after its first report, expansion microscopy (ExM) is now being routinely applied in laboratories worldwide to achieve super-resolution imaging on conventional fluorescence microscopes. By chemically anchoring all molecules of interest to the polymer meshwork of an expandable hydrogel, their physical distance is increased by a factor of ∼4-5× upon dialysis in water, resulting in an imprint of the original sample with a lateral resolution up to 50-70 nm. To ensure a correct representation of the original spatial distribution of the molecules, it is crucial to confirm that the expansion is isotropic, preferentially in all three dimensions. To address this, we present an approach to evaluate the local expansion factor within a biological sample and in all three dimensions. We use photobleaching to introduce well-defined three-dimensional (3D) features in the cell and, by comparing the size and shape pre- and postexpansion, these features can be used as an intrinsic ruler. In addition, our method is capable of pointing out sample distortions and can be used as a quality control tool for expansion microscopy experiments in biological samples.
Fluorescence Photobleaching as an Intrinsic Tool to Quantify the 3D Expansion Factor of Biological Samples in Expansion Microscopy
Marisa Vanheusden, Raffaele Vitale, Rafael Camacho,† Kris P. F. Janssen,‡ Aline Acke, Susana Rocha,corresponding author* and Johan Hofkenscorresponding author*
2020 Mar 31
Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) has been increasingly considered as an important bioink material due to its tailorable mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and ability to be photopolymerized in situ as well as printability. GelMA can be classified into two types: type A GelMA (a product from acid treatment) and type B GelMA (a product from alkali treatment). In current literature, there is little research on the comparison of type A GelMA and type B GelMA in terms of synthesis, rheological properties, and printability for bioink applications. Here, we report the synthesis, rheological properties, and printability of types A and B GelMA. Types A and B GelMA samples with different degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared in a controllable manner by a time-lapse loading method of methacrylic anhydride (MAA) and different feed ratios of MAA to gelatin. Type B GelMA tended to have a slightly higher DS compared to type A GelMA, especially in a lower feed ratio of MAA to gelatin. All the type A and type B GelMA solutions with different DS exhibited shear thinning behaviours at 37 °C. However, only GelMA with a high DS had an easy-to-extrude feature at room temperature. The cell-laden printed constructs of types A and B GelMA at 20% w/v showed around 75% cell viability.
gelatin, methacryloyl, bioink, type A and type B, 3D bioprinting
Synthesis and Characterization of Types A and B Gelatin Methacryloyl for Bioink Applications
Bae Hoon Lee,1,*† Nathaniel Lum,1,† Li Yuan Seow,1,† Pei Qi Lim,1 and Lay Poh Tan1,2,* Nicole Zander, Academic Editor, Chee Kai Chua, Academic Editor, Wai Yee Yeong, Academic Editor, and Jia An, Academic Editor
Etiological evidence demonstrates that there is a significant association between cigarette smoking and chronic airway inflammatory disease. Abnormal expression of placental growth factor (PlGF) has been reported in COPD, and its downstream signaling molecules have been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of airway epithelial cell apoptosis and emphysema. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced PlGF expression in airway microenvironment remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 [ERK-1/2])/early growth response-1 (Egr-1) pathway on CSE-induced PlGF upregulation in human bronchial epithelium (HBE). The data obtained with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence staining analyses showed that CSE-induced Egr-1 activation was mainly mediated through production of ROS and activation of the MAPK (ERK-1/2) cascade. The binding of Egr-1 to the PlGF promoter was corroborated by an ELISA-based DNA binding activity assay. These results demonstrate that ROS activation of the MAPK (ERK-1/2)/Egr-1 pathway is a main player in the regulatory mechanism for CSE-induced PlGF production and that the use of an antioxidant could partly abolish these effects. Understanding the mechanisms of PlGF upregulation by CSE in the airway microenvironment may provide rational therapeutic interventions for cigarette smoking-related airway inflammatory diseases.
cigarette smoke, reactive oxygen species, airway epithelium, placental growth factor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, early growth response-1
Cigarette smoke extract induces placental growth factor release from human bronchial epithelial cells via ROS/MAPK (ERK-1/2)/Egr-1 axis
Dong Wu,1,* Yalian Yuan,1,* Zhixiu Lin,2,* Tianwen Lai,1 Min Chen,1 Wen Li,1 Quanchao Lv,1 Binfan Yuan,1 Dongmin Li,1 and Bin Wu1