Ferulic acid methyl ester/Methyl (2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate/ferulic acid amide/Ferulasaeure-amid/2-Propenoic acid, 3- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-, methyl ester/Ferulamid/Methyl ferulate/methyl (2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate/4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-zimtsaeure-amid/Methyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate/4-Oxy-3-methoxy-zimtsaeure-amid/Ferulamide/4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid amide/4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxycinnamide/methyl (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate/methyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate/2-Propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-, methyl ester, (2E)-/2-Propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-, methyl ester (9CI)/CINNAMIC ACID,4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXY-,METHYL ESTER/CINNAMAMIDE,4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXY/methyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate/Ferulic amide/feruloylamide/3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenamide
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:2309-07-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Toxicological screening of natural compounds for medicinal purposes.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of methyl ferulate (MF), methyl p-coumarate (MpC), and pulegone 1,2-epoxide (PE) with in vitro and in vivo assays.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The in vitro toxicity of MF, MpC, and PE was assessed at a concentration of 10 mg/ml with the Ames assay using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Human red blood cells (RBC) were used to determine the hemolytic activity of these compounds. The cytotoxicity of above compounds was determined with brine shrimp lethality bioassay (BSLB) at the concentrations of 0.1-20 mg/ml. While dermal and ocular irritation studies were conducted on healthy rabbits (n = 8) for 96 and 12 h post-topical application of test compounds, respectively.
PE produced 6-8% hemolysis of RBCs at all the tested concentrations while MF and MpC produced 10-5% hemolysis up to 20 mg/ml, and 50-85% hemolysis at concentrations of 40 and 80 mg/ml, respectively. The Ames assay indicated that MF, MpC, and PE were non-mutagenic as the test values were not significantly higher as compared with background values of the assay. BSLB suggested the lethal concentration (LC50) values of MF, MpC, and PE as 4.38, 6.74, and 25.91 mg/ml, respectively. In vivo ocular and dermal irritation scores of MF, MpC, and PE were comparable with ethanol (control) in rabbits indicating the non-irritant nature of these natural compounds.
The present studies suggest that these compounds are non-toxic/non-irritant and might be used for medicinal purposes.
Ames assay; brine shrimp lethality bioassay; hemolytic assay; natural compounds; rabbits
In vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluations of methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, and pulegone 1,2-epoxide.
Raza A1, Muhammad F1, de Sousa DP2, Khaliq T1, Aslam B1, Andrade L3, Bashir S4, Anwar MI5, Shahid M6, Qamar M1.
Silage, the fermented product from anaerobic storage of forage crops with high water contents (50%-70%), is normally used as animal feed but also for the production of biofuels and value-added products. To improve the utilization of plant fibers during ensiling, previous attempts have aimed at breaking linkages between lignin and hemicellulose by use of Lactobacillus buchneri LN 4017 (ATCC PTA-6138), a feruloyl esterase (FAE)-producing strain, but results have been inconsistent. Normally, there are sufficient amounts of readily available substrates for bacterial growth in silage. We thus hypothesized that the inconsistent effect of L. buchneri LN 4017 on the digestibility of silage fibers is due to the catabolic repression of FAE activity by substrates present in silage (e.g., glucose). To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of glucose on the de-esterification of methyl ferulate (MF), a model substrate used for FAE activity assays. At three glucose:MF ratios (0:1, 1:1, and 13:1), the bacteria continued hydrolyzing MF with increasing glucose:MF ratios, indicating that the de-esterification reaction was not repressed by glucose. We therefore conclude that the de-esterification activity of L. buchneri LN 4017 is not repressed by silage substrates during ensiling.
© 2019 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
catabolic repression; feruloyl esterase; fiber digestibility; forage; lignocellulose; silage
Does glucose affect the de-esterification of methyl ferulate by Lactobacillus buchneri?
Mogodiniyai Kasmaei K1, Schlosser D2, Strauber H2, Kleinsteuber S2.
To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of methyl ferulate (MF) isolated from the roots of Stemona tuberosa (S. tuberosa) Lour (Stemonaceae) in lipopolysaccharide activated macrophage cells.
Methanol extracts of a root powder of S. tuberosa were prepared for isolation of a potential anti-inflammatory agent using ultrasound extraction combined with repeated chromatography on silica gel. After the quantitative analyses, anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compound was evaluated by measurement of cytokine release, NO generation, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases including p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase using quantitative kits and Western blotting with specific antibodies.
The isolation process yielded a potential anti-inflammatory compound with a purity level of 99% determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The compound was identified as MF by using nuclear magnetic resonance. MF strongly inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, including IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, yet it did not affect the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase were clearly reduced in MF-treated macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. cyclooxygenase-2 expression and NO generation by macrophages were also suppressed when the cells were treated with MF.
The data suggested that MF is a possible inhibitor of the mitogen activated phosphor kinase pathway and could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent isolated for the first time in medicinal plant S. tuberosa.
Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inflammation; Macrophage; Stemona tuberosa; Toll-like 4 receptor
Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl ferulate isolated from Stemona tuberosa Lour.
Phuong NT1, Cuong TT2, Quang DN3.