4-Propenylveratrole/1,3,4-Isoeugenol methyl ether/trans-Methylisoeugenol/isomethyleugenol/4-trans-Propenylveratrole/benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(1-propen-1-yl)-/1,2-Dimethoxy-4-((E)-propenyl)-benzene/1-Propene, 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-/Isoeugenyl methyl ether/trans-Methyl isoeugenol/1,2-dimethoxy-4-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]benzene/1,2-Dimethoxy-4-[(1E)-1-propen-1-yl]benzene/1-(3, 4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propene/1,2-dimethoxy-4-prop-1-en-1-ylbenzene/Methylisoeugenol/Benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-[(1E)-1-propen-1-yl]-/trans-isomethyleugenol/Methyl isoeugenol/Isoeugenol methyl ether/trans-4-Propenylveratrole/1,2-Dimethoxy-4-propenylbenzene/Benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-propenyl-, (E)-/1,2-Dimethoxy-4-(prop-1-en-1-yl)benzene
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Pregnancy is a natural physiological variation as a result of hormonal and metabolic changes. Worldwide a large proportion of women are expected to die each year as a result of pregnancy complication related to hematological profile alterations. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing hematological indices of pregnant in comparison with non-pregnant women.
A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant and non-pregnant women at the University of Gondar Hospital, from February to April 2015. A blood sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age-matched non-pregnant women using systematic random sampling technique. Data analysis was made using SPSS version 20. Level of significance was analyzed using independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
In this study, pregnant women had significantly higher WBC count [(7.08 ± 2.07 vs. 5.77 ± 1.85) x 109/L], MCV [(93.16 ± 3.44 vs. 90.74 ± 4.12) fL], MCHC [(30.40 ± 1.19 vs. 29.47 ± 1.46) pg], Neutrophil count [(4.73 ± 1.86 vs. 3.06 ± 1.47) x 109/L], Lymphocyte count [(1.65 ± 0.41 vs. 1.2 ± 0.54) x 109/L], RDW [(49.35 ± 2.9 vs. 46.37 ± 2.73) fL], PDW [(14.02 ± 0.6 vs. 13.12 ± 0.19) fL], and MPV [(10.49 ± 0.95 vs. 10.06 ± 1.18) fL] compared with controls. The RBC count [(4.55 ± 0.38 vs. 5.14 ± 0.53) x 1012/L], Hb [(13.73 ± 0.96 vs. 15.30 ± 1.074) g/dL], Hct [(42.14 ± 2.55 vs. 47.16 ± 3.36)%], and Platelets [(196.07 ± 48.88 vs. 249.36 ± 62.73) x 109/L] were significantly lower among pregnant women compared to the control group, respectively. This study also indicated that there was a significant difference in MCV, MCH, platelet count, absolute lymphocyte count and RDW across the three trimes-ters of pregnancy.
This study found a statistically significant difference in the majority of hematological indices between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Trimesters of pregnancy have an influence on some hematological indices. This study provides baseline data for basic hematological indices changes, and it is vital especially in the antenatal care assessment to avoid pregnancy-related adverse outcomes.
Hematological Indices of Pregnant Women at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.
Alemu A, Abebe M, Terefe B, Yesuf M, Melku M, Enawgaw B, Biadgo B.
2019 Aug 1
Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a widely cultivated root vegetable of high economic importance. The aroma of carrot roots and aboveground organs is mainly defined by terpenes. We found that leaves of orange carrot cultivar also produce considerable amounts of the phenylpropenes methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol. Notably, methyleugenol is most abundant in young leaves, while methylisoeugenol is the dominant phenylpropene in mature leaf tissue. The goal of the present study was to shed light on the biochemistry and molecular biology of these compounds’ biosynthesis and accumulation. Using the available genomic and transcriptomic data, we isolated a cDNA encoding eugenol/isoeugenol synthase (DcE(I)GS1), an NADPH-dependent enzyme that converts coniferyl acetate to eugenol. This enzyme exhibits dual product specificity and yields propenylphenol isoeugenol alongside allylphenol eugenol. Furthermore, we identified a cDNA encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine:eugenol/isoeugenol O-methyltransferase 1 (DcE(I)OMT1) that produces methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol via methylation of the para-OH-group of their respective precursors. Both DcE(I)GS1 and DcE(I)OMT1 were expressed in seeds, roots, young and mature leaves, and the DcE(I)OMT1 transcript levels were the highest in leaves. The DcE(I)GS1 protein is 67% identical to anise t-anol/isoeugenol synthase and displays an apparent Km of 247 μM for coniferyl acetate. The catalytic efficiency of DcEOMT1 with eugenol is more than five-fold higher than that with isoeugenol, with Km values of 40 μM for eugenol, and of 115 μM for isoeugenol. This work expands the current knowledge of the enzymes involved in phenylpropene biosynthesis and would enable studies into structural elements defining the regioselectivity of phenylpropene synthases.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Apiaceae; Daucus carota subsp. sativus; Eugenol synthase; Methyleugenol; Methylisoeugenol; O-Methyltransferase
Biosynthesis of methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol in Daucus carota leaves: Characterization of eugenol/isoeugenol synthase and O-Methyltransferase.
Yahyaa M1, Berim A2, Nawade B1, Ibdah M3, Dudareva N4, Ibdah M5.
Isoeugenyl methyl ether (CAS No. 93-16-3) is a food additive used as a nature identical flavoring agent. To determine the toxicity profile and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), we performed a subchronic toxicity test in male and female F344/DuCrj rats by intragastric administration of isoeugenyl methyl ether at doses of 8, 40, and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 13 weeks. In this study, BW gain in the male 200 mg/kg BW/day group was decreased from week 9. In serum biochemistry, decreased triglycerides were observed in the male 200 mg/kg BW/day group. In organ weights, increases in both absolute and relative liver weights were observed in both sexes in the 200 mg/kg BW/day group. In histopathological examination, hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed in the male 200 mg/kg BW/day group. Based on these results, we concluded that the main target organ of isoeugenyl methyl ether was the liver and that the NOAEL of isoeugenyl methyl ether for both male and female F344/DuCrj rats was estimated to be 40 mg/kg BW/day.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
F344/DuCrj rats; Food additives; Hepatotoxicity; Isoeugenyl methyl ether; Subchronic toxicity test
Subchronic toxicity evaluation of isoeugenyl methyl ether in F344/DuCrj rats by 13-week oral administration.
Akagi JI1, Cho YM2, Mizuta Y1, Tatebe C3, Sato K3, Ogawa K1.