This product is isolated and purified from the roots of Lindera aggregata( Sims) Kosterm
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
570.1±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:3984-73-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
An accurate assay of diadenosine 5′,5”’- P1,P4-tetraphosphate [A(5′) pppp(5′)A], which was shown to be formed in vitro in the backreaction of the amino acid activation step, has been developed in various cell lines in culture and in normal mouse liver or hepatoma in vivo. Use of radioactive labeling of acid-soluble nucleotides to high specific activity followed by chromatographic separation techniques yielded levels of Ap4A varying from 5 to 0.05 muM (from 30 pmol/mg of protein to 0.15 pmol), depending on the doubling time of the cell line or the proliferative state of the cells. The levels of Ap4A incells is inversely related to their doubling time, varying from 0.1 X 10(-4) of the cellular ATP levels in slowly growing cells to 20 X 10(-4) of the ATP levels of cells with rapid doubling times. The steady-state levels of ATP of different cell lines, although showing some fluctuations, are not related to the doubling time of the cells. Arrest of cellular proliferation by serum deprivation or amino acid starvation, which does not alter the cellular ATP levels more than 2-fold, does nevertheless cause a decrease of 30 to 50-fold in the Ap4A levels. Inhibition of protein synthesis by pactamycin or puromycin, or inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, leads to a more dramatic decrease of 50 to 100-fold in intracellular Ap4A levels. The metabolic lability of Ap4A is also demonstrated by its rapid depletion after decreases in the ATP/ADP ratio. The possibility of Ap4A being a metabolic “signal nucleotide” that is formed at the onset of protein synthesis and is active in positive growth regulation (positive pleiotypic activation) is discussed.
Presence of diadenosine 5',5''' -P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in mamalian cells in levels varying widely with proliferative activity of the tissue: a possible positive "pleiotypic activator".
E Rapaport and P C Zamecnik
Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), a protein-tyrosine kinase, bearing the Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) domains, has been implicated in phosphorylation of c-Src Tyr-527, resulting in suppression of c-Src kinase activity. We found that mutations in the SH2 or SH3 domain of Csk, though they did not affect its kinase activity, resulted in a loss of suppression of c-Src activity in fibroblasts. In normal fibroblasts, tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin and focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK, which colocalize at focal adhesion plaques, were the major proteins to which the Csk SH2 domain bound. Loss of binding to these proteins by the Csk SH2 mutants correlated with loss of the activity to suppress c-Src. Consistent with this observation, the levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK were greatly reduced during mitosis, whereas the kinase activity of c-Src was elevated. We suggest that the SH2 domain is required for Csk to suppress c-Src, perhaps in combination with the SH3 domain, by anchoring Csk to a particular subcellular location where c-Src may exist. Our data also indicate that a certain fraction of the Csk and Src family kinases function at the focal adhesion plaques. The activity of the c-Src kinase localized at the focal adhesion plaques appears to be regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.
Analysis of the binding of the Src homology 2 domain of Csk to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in the suppression and mitotic activation of c-Src.
H Sabe, A Hata, M Okada, H Nakagawa, and H Hanafusa
1994 Apr 26;
The immune response to beta-galactosidase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC 184.108.40.206)is characterized by a wave of early help followed by a wave of suppression to a subsequent in vitro challenge with galactosidase-fluorescein. A cyanogen bromide peptide of beta-galactosidase, CB2, mimics the suppression seen with the enzyme. It is time dependent, carrier specific, and anti-theta sensitive; however, this suppression is not preceded by a wave of help. It is possible that CB2 cannot stimulate helpers, and is only able to activate suppressor cells. These data indicate that one small region of an antigen, capable of activating suppressors, can nullify the positive effect induced in helper T cells reactive with other epitopes on beta-galactosidase. Key determinants on macromolecules may in this way be influential in regulating the immune response to the entire antigen molecule.
Key antigenic determinants in regulation of the immune response.
D Turkin and E E Sercarz