White crystalline powder
barks of Tsuga dumosa
methyl p-hydroxybenzoate/4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl ester/4-(Carbomethoxy)phenol/Mekkings M/Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, methyl ester/Methylparaben/4-(Methoxycarbonyl)phenol/Methyl parahydroxybenzoate/Killitol/Methyl chemosept/Methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate/p-Hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester/methyl para-hydroxybenzoate/4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Methyl Ester/Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate/Benzoic acid, p-hydroxy-, methyl ester/Nipagin/4-Hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester/Metagin/p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl ester/p-Hydroxybenzoic methyl ester/Methyl parasept/Tegosept M/4-Hydroxybenzoic acid methylester/Methyl Paraben
Methyl Paraben, isolated from the barks of Tsuga dumosa the methyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, is a standardized chemical allergen. Methyl Paraben is a stable, non-volatile compound used as an antimicrobial preservative in foods, drugs and cosmetics. The physiologic effect of Methyl Paraben is by means of increased histamine release, and cell-mediated immunity.
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In this study, the toxicity of methylparaben (MeP) an emerging contaminant, was analysed in the sexual species Artemia franciscana, due to its presence in coastal areas and marine saltworks in the Mediterranean region. The acute toxicity (24h-LC50) of MeP in nauplii was tested and its chronic effect (9days) evaluated by measuring survival and growth under two sublethal concentrations (0.0085 and 0.017mg/L). Also, the effect on several key enzymes involved in: antioxidant defences (catalase (CAT) and gluthathion-S-transferase (GST)), neural activity (cholinesterase (ChE)) and xenobiotic biotransformation (carboxylesterase (CbE), was assessed after 48h under sublethal exposure. The results of acute exposure indicate that MeP is harmful to A. franciscana (24h-LC50=36.7mg/L). MeP causes a decrease in CAT activity after 48h exposure to both concentration tested, that points out at the oxidative stress effect of MeP in A. franciscana. However, no significant effect on ChE, CbE and GST activities was found. In addition, MeP does not affect survival and growth in chronic exposure at the sublethal concentrations tested. The results of this study indicate that MeP is not a threat for A. franciscana under the experimental conditions used. Additional studies should be done considering long-term exposure and reproduction studies to analyse the potential risk of MeP as emerging contaminant in marine and hypersaline environments.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Aquaculture; Artemia franciscana; Biodiversity; Biomarkers; Methylparaben; Toxicity
Effect of methylparaben in Artemia franciscana.
Comeche A1, Martin-Villamil M2, Pico Y3, Varo I4.
Since the 1930s, parabens have been employed widely as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical, and personal care products. These alkyl esters of benzoic acid occur naturally in a broad range of plant species, where they are thought to enhance overall fitness through disease resistance and allelopathy. Current manufacture of parabens relies on chemical synthesis and the processing of 4-hydroxybenzoate as a precursor. A variety of bio-based production platforms have targeted 4-hydroxybenzoate for a greener alternative to chemical manufacturing, but parabens have yet to be made in microbes. Here, we deploy the plant enzyme benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase together with four additional recombinant enzymes to produce methylparaben in Escherichia coli. The feasibility of a tyrosine-dependent route to methylparaben is explored, establishing a framework for linking paraben production to emerging high-tyrosine E. coli strains. However, our use of a unique plant enzyme for bio-based methylparaben biosynthesis is potentially applicable to any microbial system engineered for the manufacture of 4-hydroxybenzoate.
Benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT); Escherichia coli; Methylparaben; Plant enzyme; Tyrosine-dependent biosynthesis
Production of methylparaben in Escherichia coli.
Hagel JM1, Chen X1, Facchini PJ2.
Parabens, which are used as a preservative in foods and personal care products, are detected in nearly 100% of human urine samples. Exposure to parabens is associated with DNA damage, male infertility, and endocrine disruption in adults, but the effects of prenatal exposure are unclear. In part, this is due to inadequate assessment of exposure in maternal urine, which may only reflect maternal rather than fetal exposure. To address this gap, we examined the association of prenatal methylparaben measured in meconium with preterm birth, gestational age, birthweight, maternal thyroid hormones, and child Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at 6-7 years.
Data come from the GESTation and the Environment (GESTE) prospective observational pregnancy cohort in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. Participants were 345 children with data on ADHD among 394 eligible pregnancies in women age ≥18 years with no known thyroid disease before pregnancy and meconium collected at delivery. Methylparaben was measured in meconium. Birthweight, gestational age, and maternal thyroid hormones at <20 weeks gestation were measured at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke. Preterm birth was defined as vaginal birth before the 37th week of gestation. Physician diagnosis of ADHD was determined at a scheduled cohort follow-up when children were 6-7 years old or from medical records. Associations between meconium methylparaben and outcomes were estimated with logistic and linear regressions weighted on the inverse probability of exposure to account for potential confounders, including child sex, familial income, maternal education, pre-pregnancy body mass index, age, and smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
Methylparaben was detected in 65 meconium samples (19%), 33 children were diagnosed with ADHD (10%), and 13 children were born preterm (4%). Meconium methylparaben was associated with preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] = 4.81; 95% CI [2.29, 10.10]), decreased gestational age (beta [β] = -0.61 weeks; 95% CI [-0.93, -0.29]) and birthweight (β = -0.12 kg; 95% CI [-0.21, -0.03]), altered maternal TSH (relative concentration [RC] = 0.76; 95% CI [0.58, 0.99]), total T3 (RC = 0.84; 95% CI [0.75, 0.96]) and total T4 (RC = 1.10; 95% CI [1.01, 1.19]), maternal hypothyroxinemia (OR = 2.50, 95% CI [1.01, 6.22]), and child ADHD at age of 6-7 (OR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.45, 3.76]). The effect of meconium methylparaben on ADHD was partially mediated by preterm birth (20% mediation) and birthweight (13% mediation).
Meconium methylparaben was associated with preterm birth, decreased gestational age and birthweight, maternal thyroid hormone dysfunction, and child ADHD. Parabens are a substantial health concern if causally related to these adverse outcomes.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Birth outcomes; Endocrine disruption; Parabens; Prenatal exposure; Thyroid hormones
Methylparaben in meconium and risk of maternal thyroid dysfunction, adverse birth outcomes, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Baker BH1, Wu H2, Laue HE3, Boivin A4, Gillet V4, Langlois MF5, Bellenger JP6, Baccarelli AA2, Takser L4.
2020 Apr 10