Estr-5-ene-3,11-diol, 17-[(1R,4R)-4,5-dihydroxy-1,5-dimethylhexyl]-4,4,9,14-tetramethyl-, (3β,9β,10α,11α,17β)-/(1S,4R,9β,11α,24R)-9,10,14-Trimethyl-4,9-cyclo-9,10-secocholest-5-ene-1,11,24,25-tetrol
Mogrol is a biometabolite of mogrosides, and acts via inhibition of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways, or reducing CREB activation and activating AMPK signaling.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
595.6±50.0 °C at 760 mmH
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:88930-15-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
We report the syntheses and characterization of three solution-processable phenoxy silicon phthalocyanines (SiPcs), namely bis(3-methylphenoxy)(phthalocyanine)silicon [(3MP)2-SiPc], C46H30N8O2Si, bis(2-sec-butylphenoxy)(phthalocyanine)silicon [(2secBP)2-SiPc], C44H24I2N8O2Si, and bis(3-iodophenoxy)(phthalocyanine)silicon [(3IP)2-SiPc], C52H42N8O2Si. Crystals grown of these compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the π-π interactions between the aromatic SiPc cores were studied. It was determined that (3MP)2-SiPc has similar interactions to previously reported bis(3,4,5-trifluorophenoxy)silicon phthalocyanines [(345 F)2-SiPc] with significant π-π interactions between the SiPc groups. (3IP)2-SiPc and (2secBP)2-SiPc both experienced a parallel stacking of two of the peripheral aromatic groups. In all three cases, the solubility of these molecules was increased by the addition of phenoxy groups while maintaining π-π interactions between the aromatic SiPc groups. The solubility of (2secBP)2-SiPc was significantly higher than other bis-phenoxy-SiPcs and this was exemplified by the higher observed disorder within the crystal structure.
crystal structure, silicon, phthalocyanine, phenol, phenoxy, phenoxylation, interactions, halogen, bonds
Crystal structures of bis(phenoxy)silicon phthalocyanines: increasing π-π interactions, solubility and disorder and no halogen bonding observed
Benoît H. Lessard,a,b Alan J. Lough,c and Timothy P. Bendera,d,c,*
2016 Jul 1
The propagation of concepts in a population of agents is a form of influence spread, which can be modelled as a cascade from a set of initially activated individuals. The study of such influence cascades, in particular the identification of influential individuals, has a wide range of applications including epidemic control, viral marketing and the study of social norms. In real-world environments there may be many concepts spreading and interacting. These interactions can affect the spread of a given concept, either boosting it and allowing it to spread further, or inhibiting it and limiting its capability to spread. Previous work does not consider how the interactions between concepts affect concept spread. Taking concept interactions into consideration allows for indirect concept manipulation, meaning that we can affect concepts we are not able to directly control. In this paper, we consider the problem of indirect concept manipulation, and propose heuristics for indirectly boosting or inhibiting concept spread in environments where concepts interact. We define a framework that allows for the interactions between any number of concepts to be represented, and present a heuristic that aims to identify important influence paths for a given target concept in order to manipulate its spread. We compare the performance of this heuristic, called maximum probable gain, against established heuristics for manipulating influence spread.
Manipulating concept spread using concept relationships
James Archbold, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing#* and Nathan Griffiths, Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Writing - review & editing#
The use of environmental DNA for species detection via metabarcoding is growing rapidly. We present a co-designed lab workflow and bioinformatic pipeline to mitigate the 2 most important risks of environmental DNA use: sample contamination and taxonomic misassignment. These risks arise from the need for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to detect the trace amounts of DNA combined with the necessity of using short target regions due to DNA degradation.
Our high-throughput workflow minimizes these risks via a 4-step strategy: (i) technical replication with 2 PCR replicates and 2 extraction replicates; (ii) using multi-markers (12S,16S,CytB); (iii) a “twin-tagging,” 2-step PCR protocol; and (iv) use of the probabilistic taxonomic assignment method PROTAX, which can account for incomplete reference databases. Because annotation errors in the reference sequences can result in taxonomic misassignment, we supply a protocol for curating sequence datasets. For some taxonomic groups and some markers, curation resulted in >50% of sequences being deleted from public reference databases, owing to (i) limited overlap between our target amplicon and reference sequences, (ii) mislabelling of reference sequences, and (iii) redundancy. Finally, we provide a bioinformatic pipeline to process amplicons and conduct PROTAX assignment and tested it on an invertebrate-derived DNA dataset from 1,532 leeches from Sabah, Malaysia. Twin-tagging allowed us to detect and exclude sequences with non-matching tags. The smallest DNA fragment (16S) amplified most frequently for all samples but was less powerful for discriminating at species rank. Using a stringent and lax acceptance criterion we found 162 (stringent) and 190 (lax) vertebrate detections of 95 (stringent) and 109 (lax) leech samples.
Our metabarcoding workflow should help research groups increase the robustness of their results and therefore facilitate wider use of environmental and invertebrate-derived DNA, which is turning into a valuable source of ecological and conservation information on tetrapods.
metabarcoding, invertebrate-derived -DNA, environmental DNA, leeches
An efficient and robust laboratory workflow and tetrapod database for larger scale environmental DNA studies
Jan Axtner,1 Alex Crampton-Platt,1 Lisa A Horig,1 Azlan Mohamed,1 Charles C Y Xu,2,3,4 Douglas W Yu,2,5 and Andreas Wilting1