Astroside/tilianin/5-Hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl β-D-glucopyranoside/Moldavoside/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-/Acacetin 7-O-glucoside
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Some investigations have demonstrated that a combined endurance-strength training is the most effective in the treatment of obesity. The aim of the research was to access how different trainings influence: endothelial function, lipid metabolism, and risk of atherosclerosis in women with obesity. In a randomized trial, 39 obese women aged 28-62 completed endurance (n = 22, 60-80% HRmax) or combined training (n = 17, 20 minutes of strength exercises, 50-60% 1RM and 25 minutes of endurance training, 60-80% HRmax). Before and after the intervention vascular endothelial function (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP)as well as visceral adiposity index (VAI), total-body skeletal muscle mass and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were determined. After the trainings, in both groups total cholesterol and total-body skeletal muscle mass increased (p < 0.05). In the group undergoing combined training, lower (p < 0.05) VAI, AIP, CRP and LDL-C were noted. In the group undergoing endurance training TBARS concentration decreased (p < 0.01), while the HDL-C (p < 0.01) concentration as well as eNOS (p < 0.05) activity increased. No significant differences between groups were found, either before or after the programs. Both training programs led to the improvement of lipid metabolism, but only endurance training alone favorably changed indicators of endothelial functions in women with obesity.
physical training, lipid metabolism, skeletal muscle mass, atherosclerosis
Effects of Endurance and Endurance-Strength Training on Endothelial Function in Women with Obesity: A Randomized Trial
Marzena Ratajczak,1,* Damian Skrypnik,2 Paweł Bogdański,2 Edyta Madry,3 Jarosław Walkowiak,4 Monika Szulińska,2 Janusz Maciaszek,5 Matylda Kręgielska-Narożna,2 and Joanna Karolkiewicz6
A large body of experimental data has demonstrated the central role of T cells in acquired resistance to the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. We examined the human T-cell response to WI-1, a 120-kDa B. dermatitidis yeast cell surface protein recently shown to be an immunodominant antigen of the B-cell response in infected humans. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 blastomycosis patients studied proliferated in response to WI-1 (mean, 19,431 cpm) and to the standard, crude cell wall antigen, Blastomyces alkali- and water-soluble antigen (B-ASWS) (mean, 19,131 cpm); lymphocytes from 10 histoplasmosis patients and 10 normal control subjects did not respond to WI-1. WI-1 stimulation of patient lymphocytes and rechallenge with WI-1 or B-ASWS showed that the antigens share immunodominant epitopes. Of 100 WI-1-responsive T-cell clones derived from peripheral blood, 10 were studied in detail to assess the phenotype, function, and ligands recognized. The clones exhibit the CD3+ CD4+ phenotype of helper T cells; 2 of 10 clones (and 21% of antigen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes) use the V beta 8 T-cell receptor gene element to respond to WI-1. All the clones proliferate in response to both WI-1 and B-ASWS but not other fungal antigens, and some mediate potent cytolytic effects on WI-1- and B-ASWS-labeled targets. WI-1 recognition requires antigen processing and presentation of epitopes in association with HLA-DR (to noncytolytic clones) and HLA-DP (to cytolytic clones). From these findings, we conclude that CD4+ T cells with regulatory and cytolytic properties are involved in the development of acquired resistance of B. dermatitidis, that the cells are directed against WI-1, and that the manner of display of WI-1 peptide epitopes in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex class II may influence the profile of the immune response.
WI-1, a novel 120-kilodalton surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast cells, is a target antigen of cell-mediated immunity in human blastomycosis.
B S Klein, P M Sondel, and J M Jones
Chemical warfare agents pose significant threats in the 21st century, especially for armed forces. A colorimetric detection array was developed to identify warfare mimics, including mustard gas and nerve agents. In total, 188 sensors were screened to determine the best sensor performance, in order to identify warfare mimics 2-chloro ethyl ethylsulfide, 2-2′-thiodiethanol, trifluoroacetic acid, methylphosphonic acid, dimethylphosphite, diethylcyanophosphonate, and diethyl (methylthiomethyl)phosphonate. The highest loadings in the principle component analysis (PCA) plots were used to identify the sensors that were most effective in analyzing the RGB data to classify the warfare mimics. The dataset was reduced to only twelve sensors, and PCA results gave comparable results as the large data did, demonstrating that only twelve sensors are needed to classify the warfare mimics.
warfare mimics, mustard gas, colorimetric array, principle component analysis, RGB data
The Identification of Seven Chemical Warfare Mimics Using a Colorimetric Array
Michael J. Kangas,* Adreanna Ernest, Rachel Lukowicz, Andres V. Mora, Anais Quossi, Marco Perez, Nathan Kyes, and Andrea E. Holmes*