Pale yellow crystalline powder
(3β)-28-Hydroxy-28-oxoolean-12-en-3-yl 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid/oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmoside/MomordinIc/X1188/Olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3-[(3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl)oxy]-, (3β)-/Scoparianoside B/Momordin Ic
Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways. PUMID/DOI：23417763 Apoptosis. 2013 Jun;18(6):751-65. Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for Momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of Momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that Momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, Momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after Momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, Momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that Momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, Momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate. Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid from Kochiae Fructus reduce carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PUMID/DOI：16117609 J Med Food. 2005 Summer;8(2):177-83. Hepatoprotective effects of Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid obtained from Kochiae Fructus (KF), the fruit of a traditional Oriental medicinal plant, were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, CCl4-treated, CCl4 plus Momordin Ic-treated (MMDIc-CCl4), and CCl4 plus oleanolic acid-treated (OAA-CCl4). Momordin Ic (30 mg/kg of body weight) and oleanolic acid (30 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered once a day for 14 days. A mixture of 0.2 mL/100 g of body weight of CCl4 in olive oil (1:1, vol/vol) was injected 30 minutes after the final administration of Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid. The Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid pretreatments resulted in significantly lower serum transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in the CCl4-treated rats. The CCl4-treated rats had significantly lower activities of glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, pretreatment with Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid reduced the effect of CCl4 and helped maintain levels of the enzymes. Pretreatment with Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid resulted in significantly lower production of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase in the CCl4-treated rats. Pretreatment with Momordin Ic resulted in lower catalase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activity induction by CCl4, towards normalization. Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid obtained from KF appear to contribute to alleviating the adverse effects of CCl4 treatment by enhancing the hepatic antioxidant defense system. Acceleration of gastrointestinal transit by momordin Ic in mice: possible involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT(2) receptors and prostaglandins. PUMID/DOI：10748274 Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 24;392(1-2):71-7. Possible involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-HT receptors and prostaglandins in the acceleration of gastrointestinal transit by Momordin Ic was investigated in mice. Accelerative effect of Momordin Ic (25 mg/kg, p.o.) on gastrointestinal transit was attenuated by pretreatment with a bolus of DL-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesizing enzyme), but not repeated pretreatment with DL-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester. Furthermore, cyproheptadine (a nonselective 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and clozapine (a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist) also attenuated the effect of Momordin Ic, but methiothepin (a 5-HT(1) receptor antagonist), MDL 72222 (3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate) and metoclopramide (5-HT(3) receptor antagonists), tropisetron (a 5-HT(3/4) receptor antagonist), ketanserin and haloperidol (5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists) did not. These results suggested a possible involvement of endogenous 5-HT and 5-HT(2B/2C) over 5-HT(2A) receptors. Attenuation by pretreatment with indomethacin (an inhibitor of prostaglandins synthesis) suggested involvement of prostaglandins. It is postulated that Momordin Ic accelerates gastrointestinal transit partially by stimulating synthesis of 5-HT to act through 5-HT(2), possibly 5-HT(2C) and/or 5-HT(2B) receptors, which, in turn, increases synthesis of prostaglandins. Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. III. Structure-related inhibitory activity and action mode of oleanolic acid glycosides on hypoglycemic activity. PUMID/DOI：9775435 Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1998 Sep;46(9):1399-403. We examined the structure-related activity of oleanolic acid glycosides with respect to their inhibitory effect on the increase in serum glucose in oral glucose-loaded rats and their mechanism of action using oleanolic acid 3-O-glucuronide and Momordin Ic. Both the 3-O-monodesmoside structure and 28-carboxyl group were confirmed to be essential for such activity, and the 3-O-glucuronide was more potent than 3-O-glucoside. On the other hand, the 28-ester glucoside moiety and 6'-methyl ester of the glucuronide moiety reduced such activity. Oleanolic acid 3-O-glucuronide and Momordin Ic, both of which inhibited the increase in serum glucose in oral glucose-loaded rats, did not lower serum glucose in normal or intraperitoneal glucose-loaded rats, or alloxan-induced diabetic mice. These glycosides were found to suppress gastric emptying in rats, and also inhibit glucose uptake in the rat small intestine in vitro. These results indicate that oleanolic acid 3-O-glucuronide and Momordin Ic, given orally, have neither insulin-like activity nor insulin releasing-activity. They exhibit their hypoglycemic activity by suppressing the transfer of glucose from the stomach to the small intestine and by inhibiting glucose transport at the brush border of the small intestine.
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Momordin Ic was previously found to induce liver cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy. To further elucidate the anti-cancer activity of Momordin Ic, we analyzed the suppressive effects of Momordin Ic on cell migration and invasion. We also investigated the mechanisms associated with MMP-9, adhesion molecules and signaling transductions. The results demonstrated that Momordin Ic effectively prevented cell attachment, migration and invasion. E-cadherin, mediation of homotypic adhesion was induced while VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and MMP-9 were inhibited. Momordin Ic influenced phosphorylations of p38, JNK and Erk with VEGF. p38 effectively regulated expressions of E-cadherin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. JNK greatly contributed to E-cadherin alteration. Erk hardly modified E-cadherin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and MMP-9 although Erk phosphorylation decreased by Momordin Ic. These results revealed Momordin Ic prevent cell invasion by inhibiting VCAM-1, ICAM-1, MMP-9 but inducing E-cadherin expression via p38 and JNK pathways. Thus momordin Ic may be a promising candidate with anti-cancer bioactivity.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Adhesion molecules; Invasion; MMP-9; Metastasis; Momordin Ic
Suppressive effects of Momordin Ic on HepG2 cell migration and invasion by regulating MMP-9 and adhesion molecules: Involvement of p38 and JNK pathways.
Wang J1, Liu Q2, Xiao H3, Luo X1, Liu X4.
SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1), a member of the de-SUMOylation protease family, is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and is involved in PCa pathogenesis. Momordin Ιc (Mc), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibited SENP1 in vitro, as reflected by reduced SENP1C-induced cleavage of SUMO2-ΔRanGAP1. Mc also altered the thermal stability of SENP1 in a newly developed cellular thermal shift assay, indicating that Mc directly interacts with SENP1 in PCa cells. Consistent with SENP1 inhibition, Mc increased SUMOylated protein levels, which was further confirmed by the accumulation of two known SUMOylated proteins, hypoxia inducible factor-1a and nucleus accumbens associated protein 1 in PC3 cells. Compared to LNCaP and normal prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells, PC3 cells had higher levels of SENP1 mRNA and were more sensitive to Mc-induced growth inhibition. Mc also reduced SENP1 mRNA levels in PCa cells. Overexpression of SENP1 rescued PC3 cells from Mc-induced apoptosis. Finally, Mc suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in vivo in a xenograft PC3 tumor mouse model. These findings demonstrate that Mc is a novel SENP1 inhibitor with potential therapeutic value for PCa. Investigation of other pentacyclic triterpenoids may aid in the development of novel SENP1 inhibitor drugs.
Momordin Ic; SENP1; SUMOylation; proliferation; prostate cancer
Momordin Ic, a new natural SENP1 inhibitor, inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation.
Wu J1, Lei H2, Zhang J2, Chen X1, Tang C2, Wang W2, Xu H2, Xiao W3, Gu W1, Wu Y2.
2016 Sep 13
Momordin Ic is a principal saponin constituent of Fructus Kochiae, which acts as an edible and pharmaceutical product more than 2000 years in China. Our previous research found momordin Ic induced apoptosis by PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. While the role of autophagy in momordin Ic induced cell death has not been discussed, and the connection between the apoptosis and autophagy is not clear yet. In this work, we reported momordin Ic promoted the formation of autophagic vacuole and expression of Beclin 1 and LC-3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared with momordin Ic treatment alone, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) also can inhibit apoptosis, while autophagy activator rapamycin (RAP) has the opposite effect, and the apoptosis inhibitor ZVAD-fmk also inhibited autophagy induced by momordin Ic. Momordin Ic simultaneously induces autophagy and apoptosis by suppressing the ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and activating the ROS-related JNK and P38 pathways. Additionally, momordin Ic induces apoptosis by suppressing PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB pathways and promotes autophagy by ROS-mediated Erk signaling pathway. Those results suggest that momordin Ic has great potential as a nutritional preventive strategy in cancer therapy.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apoptosis; Autophagy; Crosstalk; HepG2 cells; Momordin Ic
Momordin Ic couples apoptosis with autophagy in human hepatoblastoma cancer cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.
Mi Y1, Xiao C1, Du Q2, Wu W1, Qi G1, Liu X3.