Phenolic constituents from the root bark of Morus alba L. and their cardioprotective activity in vitro. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.12.006 Phytochemistry. 2017 Mar;135:128-134. A flavanone C-glycoside, steppogenin-5'-C-β-D-glucopyranoside, six prenylated 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives, moracin O-3″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, moracin O-3'-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, moracin P-2″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, moracin P-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, moracin P-3'-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside and moracin P-3'-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside, two phenolic acids, 2,4-dihydroxy-5-(4-hydroxybenzyl) benzoic acid and 2,4-dihydroxy-5-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl) benzoic acid, as well as three known compounds, moracinoside C, moracin O, and moracin P were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba L. Their structures were ascertained on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The protective effects of the compounds against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in H9c2 cells was investigated in vitro. Of all of the isolated compounds, moracin P-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, moracin O and moracin P had a strong protective influence against doxorubicin-induced cell death with EC50 values of 9.5 ± 2.6, 4.5 ± 1.3, and 8.8 ± 2.4 μM, respectively. Bioactive Benzofuran Derivatives from Cortex Mori Radicis, and Their Neuroprotective and Analgesic Activities Mediated by mGluR?. PUMID/DOI：DOI:10.3390/molecules22020236 Molecules. 2017 Feb 8;22(2). pii: E236. Four new benzofuran-type stilbene glycosides and 14 known compounds including 8 benzofuran-type stilbenes and 6 flavonoids were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Cortex Mori Radicis. The new compounds were identified as (9R)-moracin P 3'-O-a-l-arabinopyranoside (1), (9R)-moracin P 9-O-?d-glucopyranoside (2), (9R)-moracin P 3'-O-?d-glucopyranoside (3), and (9R)-moracin O 10-O-?d-glucopyranoside (4) based on the spectroscopic interpretation and chemical analysis. Three benzofuran-type stilbenes, moracin O (5), R (7), and P (8) showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in SK-N-SH cells. In addition, moracin O (5) and P (8) also demonstrated a remarkable inhibition of the acetic acid-induced pain. The molecular docking with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) results indicated that these neuroprotective benzofuran-type stilbenes might be the active analgesic components of the genus Morus, and acted by mediating the mGluR1 pathway. Inhibitory effect of 2-arylbenzofurans from the Mori Cortex Radicis (Moraceae) on oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death of SH-SY5Y cells. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1007/s12272-011-0818-4 Arch Pharm Res. 2011 Aug;34(8):1373-80. Three known 2-arylbenzofurans, moracin P (1), moracin O (2) and mulberrofuran Q (3) were isolated from the MeOH extract of the Mori Cortex Radicis. These compounds 1-3 enhanced cell viability in dose-dependent manner against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which was measured by MTT reduction assay. (EC(50) values of 10.4, 12.6, and 15.9 μM, respectively). In addition, the compounds 1-3 were examined for their inhibitory effect on OGD-induced ROS production by FACS analysis. We observed these compounds reduced ROS production in OGD-induced cell death (IC(50) values of 1.9, 0.3 and 12.1 μM, respectively). Consequently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were overexpressed in OGD-induced cells and all three compounds reduced ROS induced by OGD in dosedependent manner. Taken together, compounds 1-3 might protect neuronal cell death against the oxidative stress induced by OGD, though further studies in vitro and in vivo models are necessary. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.3390/molecules16076010 Molecules. 2011 Jul 19;16(7):6010-22. A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of HCV replicon cell growth by 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives isolated from Mori Cortex Radicis. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-990249 Planta Med. 2007 Nov;73(14):1481-5. Epub 2007 Oct 18. Medicinal herbs are increasingly used in the search for safe and efficient drug candidates for hepatitis C virus infection. In this study, we have investigated the anti-HCV effect of compounds from Mori Cortex Radicis. During a screening for extracts with anti-HCV affinity from medicinal plants (173 species), the methanol extract of Mori Cortex Radicis was selected. Fractionation of the extract by monitoring antiviral activity with a replicon cell-based assay resulted in the isolation of five compounds, mulberroside C ( 1), moracin P ( 2), moracin O ( 3), moracin M ( 4) and mulberrofuran K ( 5) from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Compounds 1 approximately 4 showed significant inhibitory activities. Compounds 2 and 3 showed potent inhibitory activity (IC (50) 35.6 microM, 80.8 microM, respectively) in the replicon cell assay, which was confirmed by NS3 helicase inhibitory activity (IC (50) 42.9 microM, 27.0 microM, respectively).
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To assess the left ventricular heart function and the clinical outcome 16 years after coronary artery bypass surgery.
In a randomised trial, the no-touch (NT) vein graft in coronary artery bypass surgery has shown a superior patency rate, a slower progression of atherosclerosis and better clinical outcome compared to the conventional (C) vein graft at 8.5 years. All patients at mean time 16 years were offered an echocardiographic and clinical examination.
In the NT-group 34 patients and in the C-group 31 patients underwent an echocardiography examination. A significantly better left ventricle ejection fraction was seen in the NT-group compared to the C-group (57.9% vs 49.4%; p=0.011). The size of the left atrium in NT was 21.7 cm2 compared to 23.9 cm2 in C; p=0.034. No patient in NT had atrial fibrillation compared to five patients in C (p=0.021). Patients with a brain natriuretic peptide value (BNP) ≥150 was 30% in NT compared to 38% in C. Total mortality was 25% in NT vs 27% in C. Cardiac-related deaths were 8% and 12% in NT and C respectively.
The NT vein graft preserves the left ventricular ejection fraction after 16 years. A smaller left atrium, a lower BNP and no atrial fibrillation indicates an improved diastolic left ventricular function in the NT-group.
The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01686100) and The Research and Development registry in Sweden (no. 102841).
Vein graft Disease
The no-touch vein graft for coronary artery bypass surgery preserves the left ventricular ejection fraction at 16 years postoperatively: long-term data from a longitudinal randomised trial
Benny Johansson,1 Ninos Samano,2 Domingos Souza,2 Lennart Bodin,3 Derek Filbey,2 John D Mannion,4 and Leif Bojo5
Evolutionary genetics provides a rich theoretical framework for empirical studies of phylogeography. Investigations of intraspecific genetic variation can uncover new putative species while allowing inference into the evolutionary origin and history of extant populations. With a distribution on four continents ranging throughout most of the Old World, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is one of the most widely distributed species of butterfly. It is placed in a monotypic genus with no commonly accepted subspecies. Here, we investigate the demographic history and taxonomic status of this widespread species, and screen for the presence or absence of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia.
We performed phylogenetic, population genetic, and phylogeographic analyses using 1799 bp of mitochondrial sequence data from 57 specimens collected throughout the species’ range. Most of the samples (>90%) were nearly genetically identical, with uncorrected pairwise sequence differences of 0 – 0.5% across geographic distances > 9,000 km. However, five samples from central Thailand, Madagascar, northern Australia and the Moluccas formed two divergent clades differing from the majority of samples by uncorrected pairwise distances ranging from 1.79 – 2.21%. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that L. boeticus is almost certainly monophyletic, with all sampled genes coalescing well after the divergence from three closely related taxa included for outgroup comparisons. Analyses of molecular diversity indicate that most L. boeticus individuals in extant populations are descended from one or two relatively recent population bottlenecks.
The combined analyses suggest a scenario in which the most recent common ancestor of L. boeticus and its sister taxon lived in the African region approximately 7 Mya; extant lineages of L. boeticus began spreading throughout the Old World at least 1.5 Mya. More recently, expansion after population bottlenecks approximately 1.4 Mya seem to have displaced most of the ancestral polymorphism throughout its range, though at least two early-branching lineages still persist. One of these lineages, in northern Australia and the Moluccas, may have experienced accelerated differentiation due to infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, which affects reproduction. Examination of a haplotype network suggests that Australia has been colonized by the species several times. While there is little evidence for the existence of morphologically cryptic species, these results suggest a complex history affected by repeated dispersal events.
Phylogeography and genetic diversity of a widespread Old World butterfly, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)
David J Lohman,corresponding author1 Djunijanti Peggie,2 Naomi E Pierce,3 and Rudolf Meier1
Asian traditional herbal preparations are frequently considered for the contamination with undeclared toxic or hazardous substances. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in decoctions that is a common form of final utilization in Korea.
A total of 155 decoctions composed of multi-ingredient traditional herbs were randomly sampled from Seoul in Korea between 2013 and 2014. For each decoction, the concentrations of four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), 33 pesticides and sulfur dioxide were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer, gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC/NPD), gas chromatography/micro electron capture detector (GC/μECD), and Monier-Williams method respectively.
One hundred fifty-two of One hundred fifty-five decoctions (98.1%) contained one of three heavy metals (96.1% for As, 97.4% for Cd, and 90.3% for Pb, 0.0% for Hg). Their average concentrations (77.0 ± 79.7 ug/kg for As, 20.4 ± 23.7 ug/kg for Cd, and 68.8 ± 76.5 ug/kg for Pb) were approximately 20% of the maximum allowable limits of vegetable or ginseng beverage described in the Korean Food Standard Codex while their 95th percentile concentrations were below than the guideline for them. None of 33 pesticides was detected in 155 decoction samples, and only one sample showed over limit of detection for residual sulfites.
This study support that the contained status of toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in herbal decoctions are currently within safe level in Korea, and provide a reference data for the further studies focused on the safety herbal preparations.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1646-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Herbal decoction, Quality control, Contamination, Heavy metals, Pesticides, Sulfur dioxide
Monitoring heavy metals, residual agricultural chemicals and sulfites in traditional herbal decoctions
In-Sil Yu,corresponding author1 Jeong-Sook Lee,1 Sung-Dan Kim,1 Yun-Hee Kim,1 Hae-Won Park,1 Hoe-Jin Ryu,1 Jib-Ho Lee,1 Jeong-Mi Lee,1 Kweon Jung,1 Cheol Na,2 Jin-Yong Joung,3 and Chang-Gue Soncorresponding author3