Gambogic acid/Garcinia lateriflora and Garcinia morella (batuan)
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Two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Mx cDNAs were cloned by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR and were designated RBTMx2 and RBTMx3. The deduced RBTMx2 and RBTMx3 proteins were 636 and 623 amino acids in length with molecular masses of 72 and 70.8 kDa, respectively. These proteins, along with the previously described RBTMx1 protein (G. D. Trobridge and J. A. Leong, J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 15:691-702, 1995), have between 88.7 and 96.6% identity at the amino acid level. All three proteins contain the tripartite GTP binding domain and leucine zipper motif common to Mx proteins. A monospecific polyclonal antiserum to an Escherichia coli-expressed fragment of RBTMx3 was generated, and that reagent was found to react with all three rainbow trout Mx proteins. Subsequently, endogenous Mx production in RTG-2 cells induced with poly(IC) double-stranded RNA was detected by immunoblot analysis. The cellular localization of the rainbow trout proteins was determined by transient expression of the RBTMx cDNAs in CHSE-214 (chinook salmon embryo) cells. A single-cell transient-transfection assay was used to examine the ability of each Mx cDNA clone to inhibit replication of the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). No significant inhibition in the accumulation of the IHNV nucleoprotein was observed in cells expressing either trout Mx1, Mx2, or Mx3 in transiently transfected cells.
Cloning of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Mx2 and Mx3 cDNAs and characterization of trout Mx protein expression in salmon cells.
G D Trobridge, P P Chiou, and J A Leong
Intellectual Disability (ID) is characterized by deficits in intellectual functions such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, and learning. As new avenues are emerging for treatment of genetically determined ID (such as Down’s syndrome or Fragile X syndrome), it is necessary to identify objective reliable and sensitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials.
We developed a novel visual analogical reasoning paradigm, inspired by the Progressive Raven’s Matrices, but appropriate for Intellectually Disabled patients. This new paradigm assesses reasoning and inhibition abilities in ID patients.
We performed behavioural analyses for this task (with a reaction time and error rate analysis, Study 1) in 96 healthy controls (adults and typically developed children older than 4) and 41 genetically determined ID patients (Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and ARX mutated patients). In order to establish and quantify the cognitive strategies used to solve the task, we also performed an eye-tracking analysis (Study 2).
Down syndrome, ARX and Fragile X patients were significantly slower and made significantly more errors than chronological age-matched healthy controls. The effect of inhibition on error rate was greater than the matrix complexity effect in ID patients, opposite to findings in adult healthy controls. Interestingly, ID patients were more impaired by inhibition than mental age-matched healthy controls, but not by the matrix complexity. Eye-tracking analysis made it possible to identify the strategy used by the participants to solve the task. Adult healthy controls used a matrix-based strategy, whereas ID patients used a response-based strategy. Furthermore, etiologic-specific reasoning differences were evidenced between ID patients groups.
We suggest that this paradigm, appropriate for ID patients and developmental populations as well as adult healthy controls, provides an objective and quantitative assessment of visual analogical reasoning and cognitive inhibition, enabling testing for the effect of pharmacological or behavioural intervention in these specific populations.
A Novel Analog Reasoning Paradigm: New Insights in Intellectually Disabled Patients
Aurore Curie,1,2,3,4,5,* Amandine Brun,1,2 Anne Cheylus,2 Anne Reboul,2 Tatjana Nazir,2 Gerald Bussy,1,2 Karine Delange,1,2 Yves Paulignan,2 Sandra Mercier,6 Albert David,6 Stephanie Marignier,1 Lydie Merle,7 Benedicte de Freminville,8 Fabienne Prieur,8 Michel Till,9 Isabelle Mortemousque,10 Annick Toutain,10 Eric Bieth,11 Renaud Touraine,8 Damien Sanlaville,12 Jamel Chelly,13 Jian Kong,4 Daniel Ott,4 Behrouz Kassai,5 Nouchine Hadjikhani,4,14 Randy L. Gollub,4 and Vincent des Portes1,2,3
OBJECTIVE: To achieve high and equitable coverage of insecticide-treated bednets by integrating their distribution into a measles vaccination campaign. METHODS: In December 2002 in the Lawra district in Ghana, a measles vaccination campaign lasting 1 week targeted all children aged 9 months-15 years. Families with one or more children less than five years old were targeted to receive a free insecticide-treated bednet. The Ghana Health Service, with support from the Ghana Red Cross and UNICEF, provided logistical support, volunteer workers and social mobilization during the campaign. Volunteers visited homes to inform caregivers about the campaign and encourage them to participate. We assessed pre-campaign coverage of bednets by interviewing caregivers leaving vaccination and distribution sites. Five months after distribution, a two-stage cluster survey using population-proportional sampling assessed bednet coverage, retention and use. Both the pre-campaign and post-campaign survey assessed household wealth using an asset inventory. FINDINGS: At the campaign exit interview 636/776 (82.0%) caregivers reported that they had received a home visit by a Red Cross volunteer before the campaign and that 32/776 (4.1%) of the youngest children in each household who were less than 5 years of age slept under an insecticide-treated bednet. Five months after distribution caregivers reported that 204/219 (93.2%) of children aged 9 months to 5 years had been vaccinated during the campaign; 234/248 (94.4%) of households were observed to have an insecticide-treated bednet; and 170/249 (68.3%) were observed to have a net hung over a bed. Altogether 222/248 (89.5%) caregivers reported receiving at least one insecticide-treated bednet during the campaign, and 153/254 (60.2%) said that on the previous night their youngest child had slept under a bednet received during the campaign. For households in the poorest quintile, post-campaign coverage of insecticide-treated bednets was 10 times higher than pre-campaign coverage of households in the wealthiest quintile (46/51 (90.2%) versus 14/156 (9.0%)). The marginal operational cost was 0.32 US dollars per insecticide-treated bednet delivered. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that linking bednet distribution to measles vaccination campaigns may provide an important opportunity for achieving high and equitable coverage of bednets.
Distributing insecticide-treated bednets during measles vaccination: a low-cost means of achieving high and equitable coverage.
Mark Grabowsky, Theresa Nobiya, Mercy Ahun, Rose Donna, Miata Lengor, Drake Zimmerman, Holly Ladd, Edward Hoekstra, Aliu Bello, Aba Baffoe-Wilmot, and George Amofah