This product is isolated and purified from the root bark of Morus alba L.
TCMDC-124149/Morusin/2-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-3-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-4H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4-one/4H,8H-Benzo(1,2-b:3,4-b')dipyran-4-one, 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-/4H,8H-Benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b']dipyran-4-one, 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-3-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-/2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)pyrano[2,3-h]chromen-4-one/Mulberrochromene/2-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4-one
Methanol; Ethyl Acetate
656.7±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death among all gynecological cancers. Morusin, a prenylated flavonoid extracted from the root bark of Morus australis, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various human cancers except EOC. In the present study, we explored the potential anti-cancer activity of morusin against EOC in vitro and in vivo and possible underlying mechanisms for the first time. We first found that morusin effectively inhibited EOC cell proliferation and survival in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Then we observed that treatment of EOC cells with morusin resulted in paraptosis-like cell death, a novel mode of non-apoptotic programmed cell death that is characterized by extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation due to dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria and lack of apoptotic hallmarks. In addition, we discovered that morusin induced obvious increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ levels, accumulation of ER stress markers, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in EOC cells. Furthermore, pretreatment with 4, 4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a chemical inhibitor of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) on the outer mitochondrial membrane, effectively inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ influx, cytoplasmic vacuolation and cell death induced by morusin in EOC cells. Moreover, DIDS pretreatment also suppressed morusin-induced accumulation of ER stress markers, ROS production and depletion of Δψm. Consistently, tumor xenograft assays showed that co-treatment with DIDS partially reversed the inhibitory effects of morusin on tumor growth in vivo and inhibited the increased levels of ER stress markers induced by morusin in tumor tissues. Collectively, our results suggest that VDAC-mediated Ca2+ influx into mitochondria and subsequent mitochondrial Ca2+ overload contribute to mitochondrial swelling and dysfunction, leading to morusin-induced paraptosis-like cell death in EOC. This study may provide alternative therapeutic strategies for EOC exhibiting resistance to apoptosis.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
EOC; Mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Morusin; Paraptosis-like cell death; VDAC
Morusin induces paraptosis-like cell death through mitochondrial calcium overload and dysfunction in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Xue J1, Li R2, Zhao X3, Ma C4, Lv X5, Liu L6, Liu P7.
2018 Mar 1
The present study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of morusin on the human lung cancer cell line A549. Various doses of morusin were applied to A549 cells and the effects were assessed by wound‑healing and MTT assays, flow cytometry analysis of apoptosis, a mitochondrial membrane potential assay and RT‑PCR. The results indicated that the concentrations of 10 and 30 µg/ml morusin significantly inhibited A549 cells and signs of apoptosis were observed. In addition, the wound‑healing assay results revealed that morusin inhibited cell migration. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the rates of apoptosis were 16.46, 55.80 and 70.80% following treatment with 1, 10 and 30 µg/ml of morusin, respectively, and that the mitochondrial membrane potentials also decreased with the increase of morusin. Furthermore, morusin increased the antioxidant activities of the A549 cells. RT‑PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of COX‑2 and VEGF were downregulated following morusin treatment. In conclusion, morusin significantly inhibited the proliferation of the lung cancer cell line A549, and may have affected the invasion and migration of the cells by downregulating the expression of tumor angiogenesis‑related genes.
Morusin suppresses A549 cell migration and induces cell apoptosis by downregulating the expression of COX‑2 and VEGF genes.
Yin XL1, Lv Y1, Wang S1, Zhang YQ1.
Conflicting results for morusin activity during adipogenic differentiation are reported in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and cancer cells. To elucidate the influence of morusin on fat metabolism, their anti-obesity effects and molecular mechanism were investigated in 3T3-L1 cells and primary adipocytes. Morusin at a dose of less than 20 µM does not induce any significant change in the viability of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated with 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 1 µM dexamethasone, 10 µg/mL insulin in DMEM containing 10% FBS (MDI)-significantly reduces in a dose-dependent manner after morusin treatment. The phosphorylation level of members in the MAP kinase signaling pathway under the insulin receptor downstream also decrease significantly in the MDI + morusin-treated group compared to MDI + vehicle-treated group. Also, the expression of adipogenic transcription factors (PPARγ and C/EBPα) and lipogenic proteins (aP2 and FAS) are significantly attenuated by exposure to the compound in MDI-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, the decrease in the G0/G1 arrest of cell cycle after culturing in MDI medium was dramatically recovered after co-culturing in MDI + 20 µM morusin. Moreover, morusin treatment induces glycerol release in the primary adipocytes of SD rats and enhances lipolytic protein expression (HSL, ATGL, and perilipin) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, the results of the present study provide strong evidence that morusin inhibits adipogenesis by regulating the insulin receptor signaling, cell cycle and adipogenic protein expression as well as stimulating lipolysis by enhancing glycerol release and lipolytic proteins expression.
3T3-L1; MDI; cell cycle; lipogenesis; lipolysis; morusin
Morusin Functions as a Lipogenesis Inhibitor as Well as a Lipolysis Stimulator in Differentiated 3T3-L1 and Primary Adipocytes.
Lee MR1, Kim JE2, Choi JY3, Park JJ4, Kim HR5, Song BR6, Park JW7, Kang MJ8, Choi YW9, Kim KM10, Hwang DY11
2018 Aug 10