Mulberroside F isolated from the leaves of Morus alba inhibits melanin biosynthesis. PUMID/DOI：12186407 Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Aug;25(8):1045-8 The current study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of an 85% methanol extract of dried Morus alba leaves on melanin biosynthesis, which is closely related to hyperpigmentation. These extracts inhibited the tyrosinase activity that converts dopa to dopachrome in the biosynthetic process of melanin. Mulberroside F (moracin M-6, 3'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), which was obtained after the bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extracts, showed inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and on the melanin formation of melan-a cells. This compound also exhibited superoxide scavenging activity that is involved in the protection against auto-oxidation. But its activity was low and was weaker than of kojic acid. These results suggest that Mulberroside F isolated from mulberry leaves might be used as a skin whitening agent.
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Human‐driven evolution can impact the ecological role and conservation value of impacted populations. Most evolutionary restoration approaches focus on manipulating gene flow, but an alternative approach is to manipulate the selection regime to restore historical or desired trait values. Here we examined the potential utility of this approach to restore anadromous migratory behavior in coastal California steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. We evaluated the effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental variables on the observed frequency of alleles at a genomic marker tightly associated with migratory behavior across 39 steelhead populations from across California, USA. We then modeled the potential for evolutionary restoration at sites that have been impacted by anthropogenic barriers. We found that complete barriers such as dams are associated with major reductions in the frequency of anadromy‐associated alleles. The removal of dams is therefore expected to restore anadromy significantly. Interestingly, accumulations of large numbers of partial barriers (passable under at least some flow conditions) were also associated with significant reductions in migratory allele frequencies. Restoration involving the removal of partial barriers could be evaluated alongside dam removal and fishway construction as a cost‐effective tool to restore anadromous fish migrations. Results encourage broader consideration of in situ evolution during the development of habitat restoration projects.
anadromy, dam removal, ecological restoration, fish passage, freshwater resident, life history variation, Oncorhynchus mykiss, rapid evolution
Evolutionary restoration potential evaluated through the use of a trait‐linked genetic marker
Travis M. Apgar, 1 Devon E. Pearse, 1 , 2 and Eric P. Palkovacscorresponding author 1