Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of myricetin 3-O-β-galactoside isolated from Davilla elliptica: involvement of the nitrergic system. PUMID/DOI：DOI:10.1007/s11418-015-0913-9 J Nat Med. 2015 Oct;69(4):487-93. We aimed to study the antinociceptive effects of myricetin 3-O-β-galactoside (Mi), a substance isolated from the hydroalcoholic extract of Davilla elliptica. This study examined male Swiss mice, inducible nitric oxide synthase C57B16/J knockout mice (iNOS(-/-)), and their corresponding wild type (WT). Formalin and tail-flick tests were used to evaluate the nociceptive threshold, and the carrageenan-induced paw edema test was used as a model for inflammation. The following drugs were administered to investigate the involvement of the nitrergic and opioidergic systems: L-NAME, a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor; L-arginine (L-Arg), a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO); D-arginine (D-Arg), an inactive isomer for the synthesis of NO; aminoguanidine (Am), an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor; and naloxone, a nonselective antagonist of opioid receptors. The results showed that oral pretreatment with Mi caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the inflammatory phase of the formalin test and did not alter motor performance. Intraperitoneal injection of L-NAME caused a reduction in the licking time during the second phase of the formalin test. The administration of L-Arg (but not D-Arg) reversed the antinociceptive effect of L-NAME. Furthermore, pre-administration of aminoguanidine potentiated the antinociceptive effect. Mi did not cause an antinociceptive effect in iNOS knockouts and led to a reduction in the nitrite concentration in the paws of mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was reduced in Swiss mice and WT mice when compared to iNOS(-/-) mice. Pre-administration of naloxone (NLX) did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of Mi, excluding the opioidergic system as a mediator of the antinociceptive effect. Thus, the results suggest that the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of myricetin 3-O-β-galactoside are related to peripheral inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, mainly iNOS. In vitro antioxidant and antigenotoxic potentials of myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside from Myrtus communis: modulation of expression of genes involved in cell defence system using cDNA microarray. PUMID/DOI：DOI:10.1016 / j.tiv.2007.11.015 Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Apr;22(3):567-81. Antioxidant activity of myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside, isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis, was determined by the ability of each compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation and to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Antimutagenic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest and the Comet assay. The IC50 values of lipid peroxidation by myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside are respectively 160 microg/ml and 220 microg/ml. At a concentration of 100 microg/ml, the two compounds showed the most potent inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase activity by respectively, 57% and 59%. Myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside was a very potent radical scavenger with an IC50 value of 1.4 microg/ml. Moreover, these two compounds induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide, aflatoxine B1 and H2O2 induced mutagenicity. The protective effect exhibited by these molecules was also determined by analysis of gene expression as response to an oxidative stress using a cDNA micro-array. Myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside modulated the expression patterns of cellular genes involved in oxidative stress, respectively (GPX1, TXN, AOE372, SEPW1, SHC1) and (TXNRD1, TXN, SOD1 AOE372, SEPW1), in DNA damaging repair, respectively (XPC, LIG4, RPA3, PCNA, DDIT3, POLD1, XRCC5, MPG) and (TDG, PCNA, LIG4, XRCC5, DDIT3, MSH2, ERCC5, RPA3, POLD1), and in apoptosis (PARP).
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The biological process, 3-O-galactosylation, is important in plant cells. To understand the mechanism of the reduction of flavonol antioxidative activity by 3-O-galactosylation, myricetin-3-O-galactoside (M3OGa) and myricetin aglycone were each incubated with 2 mol α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and subsequently comparatively analyzed for radical adduct formation (RAF) products using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) technology. The analyses revealed that M3OGa afforded an M3OGa-DPPH adduct (m/z 873.1573) and an M3OGa-M3OGa dimer (m/z 958.1620). Similarly, myricetin yielded a myricetin-DPPH adduct (m/z 711.1039) and a myricetin-myricetin dimer (m/z 634.0544). Subsequently, M3OGa and myricetin were compared using three redox-dependent antioxidant analyses, including DPPH•-trapping analysis, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide radical (PTIO•)-trapping analysis, and •O2 inhibition analysis. In the three analyses, M3OGa always possessed higher IC50 values than those of myricetin. Conclusively, M3OGa and its myricetin aglycone could trap the free radical via a chain reaction comprising of a propagation step and a termination step. At the propagation step, both M3OGa and myricetin could trap radicals through redox-dependent antioxidant pathways. The 3-O-galactosylation process, however, could limit these pathways; thus, M3OGa is an inferior antioxidant compared to its myricetin aglycone. Nevertheless, 3-O-galactosylation has a negligible effect on the termination step. This 3-O-galactosylation effect has provided novel evidence that the difference in the antioxidative activities of phytophenols exists at the propagation step rather than the termination step.
myricetin-3-O-galactoside, myricetin, 3-O-galactosylation, antioxidant pathway, radical adduct formation
Comparative Analysis of Radical Adduct Formation (RAF) Products and Antioxidant Pathways between Myricetin-3-O-Galactoside and Myricetin Aglycone
Xican Li,1,2,†* Xiaojian Ouyang,1,2,† Minshi Liang,1,2 and Dongfeng Chen3,4,*