White needle crystal
Angelica polymorpha,Ipomoea batatas,Schisandra chinensis,Areca catechu,Glechoma longituba
triacontyl alcohol/Nutron/3H-myristic acid/myricyl/1-tetradecanoic acid/n-TETRADECANOIC ACID/tetradecoic acid/Tetradecanoic acid/WELL-BLOOM/n-Myristic acid/myricyl alcohol/MIRACULAN/myristolic acid/Prosopol/Myristic acid/melissyl/melissyl alcohol/1-triaconatanol/Tomatex/1-hydroxytriacontane
319.6±5.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:544-63-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Decreased levels of the δ isozyme of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) in skeletal muscle attenuate glucose uptake and, consequently, are critical for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We recently found that free myristic acid (14:0), but not free palmitic acid (16:0), increased the DGKδ protein levels and enhanced glucose uptake in C2C12 myotube cells. However, it has been unclear how myristic acid regulates the level of DGKδ2 protein. In the present study, we characterized the myristic acid-dependent increase of DGKδ protein. A cycloheximide chase assay demonstrated that myristic acid, but not palmitic acid, markedly stabilized DGKδ protein. Moreover, other DGK isozymes, DGKη and ζ, as well as glucose uptake-related proteins, such as protein kinase C (PKC) α, PKCζ, Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, failed to be stabilized by myristic acid. Furthermore, DGKδ was not stabilized in cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells, pancreas carcinoma cells or neuroblastoma cells, and only a moderate stabilizing effect was observed in embryonic kidney cells. A proteasome inhibitor and a lysosome inhibitor, MG132 and chloroquine, respectively, partly inhibited DGKδ degradation, suggesting that myristic acid prevents, at least in part, the degradation of DGKδ by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Overall, these results strongly suggest that myristic acid attenuates DGKδ protein degradation in skeletal muscle cells and that this attenuation is fatty acid-, protein- and cell line-specific. These new findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Diacylglycerol kinase; Myotube; Myristic acid; Protein degradation; Protein stabilization; Type 2 diabetes
Myristic acid specifically stabilizes diacylglycerol kinase δ protein in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.
Iwata K1, Sakai H2, Takahashi D3, Sakane F4.
Myristic acid was identified as a metabolite with the highest diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in the metabolome of patients with bacteraemia. Subsequently, its significant decrease was observed in patients in septic shock not responding to treatment. In our study we have captured myristic acid serum level kinetics in 96 hours following accidental intravenous self-administration of eubiotic Hylak forte causing infection-like systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). To our knowledge, this is the first time the kinetics of myristic acid levels is presented in a septic patient. Myristic acid was evaluated in comparison with other inflammatory biomarkers and with its level in a control group of healthy subjects. Myristic acid levels during septic response were significantly elevated in comparison with the control group. The peak level was recorded almost immediately after the insult with a gradual decrease within 96 hours. Myristic acid appears to be a promising biomarker in sepsis diagnostics, further research by our group into this topic is ongoing.
Biomarkers; Kinetics; Myristic acid; Sepsis
Kinetics of Myristic Acid Following Accidentally Induced Septic Response.
Zazula R1, Průcha M2, Pehal F2, Dryahina K3, Moravec M4,5, Muller M4, Nejtek T4,5.
A mixture of eight fatty acids (lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, and linoleic acid) that are contained in human amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk produces appetitive responses in newborns, suggesting the existence of a transition of sensorial cues that guide newborns to the maternal breast.
To explore the ability of each of these eight fatty acids individually to produce appetitive responses in newborns.
The study included 12 healthy human newborns<24h after birth. Using a longitudinal design, cotton swabs that were impregnated with each of the eight fatty acids and control substances (i.e., vehicle, saline, and vanilla) were placed approximately 1cm from the newborns’ nostrils for 30s. Positive responses that were suggestive of acceptance included appetitive movements (i.e., suckling) and sniffing that were directed toward the cotton swab. Lateral movements of the head away from the swab were considered negative responses. Remaining stationary with no changes in facial expressions was considered indifference.
Compared with controls (i.e., vehicle, saline, and vanilla) and the other fatty acids tested, myristic acid produced the longest duration of positive facial responses (suckling and sniffing). No significant differences in negative facial responses were observed in response to the odoriferous stimuli. No reactions that were suggestive of disgust were observed.
A complex combination of stimuli, including the odor of myristic acid, may integrate sensory cues that guide newborns to the maternal breast.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Appetitive behavior; Fatty acids; Myristic acid; Newborn recognition; Olfactory stimulation; Prenatal learning
Myristic acid in amniotic fluid produces appetitive responses in human newborns.
Gutierrez-Garcia AG1, Contreras CM2, Diaz-Marte C3.