rac-(2R*)-2-(Benzoylamino)-4-methylvaleric acid/Leucine,N-benzoyl/BZ-DL-LEU-OH/rac-(2R*)-4-Methyl-2-(benzoylamino)valeric acid/Benzoyl-DL-leucline/N-Bz-leucine/DL-N-benzoylleucine/Benzoyl-DL-leucine/N-benzoyl-dl-leucine crystalline/N-Benzoyl-Leucine/rac-(R*)-N-Benzoyl-2-isobutylglycine/N-benzoyl DL-leucine
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Understanding changes in precipitation variability is essential for a complete explanation of the hydrologic cycle’s response to warming and its impacts. While changes in mean and extreme precipitation have been studied intensively, precipitation variability has received less attention, despite its theoretical and practical importance. Here, we show that precipitation variability in most climate models increases over a majority of global land area in response to warming (66% of land has a robust increase in variability of seasonal-mean precipitation). Comparing recent decades to RCP8.5 projections for the end of the 21st century, we find that in the global, multi-model mean, precipitation variability increases 3-4% K−1 globally, 4-5% K−1 over land and 2-4% K−1 over ocean, and is remarkably robust on a range of timescales from daily to decadal. Precipitation variability increases by at least as much as mean precipitation and less than moisture and extreme precipitation for most models, regions, and timescales. We interpret this as being related to an increase in moisture which is partially mitigated by weakening circulation. We show that changes in observed daily variability in station data are consistent with increased variability.
Precipitation variability increases in a warmer climate
Angeline G. Pendergrass,corresponding author1 Reto Knutti,1,2 Flavio Lehner,1 Clara Deser,1 and Benjamin M. Sanderson1
The associations between hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain controversial, with only few studies focused on these associations within the Chinese population. We performed subgroup and interaction analyses in a Chinese Han population to investigate these associations. In all, 155 AAA patients and 310 control subjects were evaluated for serum total homocysteine levels and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the aforementioned associations. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, and chronic disease histories. The multiple logistic analyses showed a significant association between HHcy and AAA but no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. The interaction analysis showed that age and peripheral arterial disease played an interactive role in the association between HHcy and AAA, while drinking status played an interactive role in the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. In conclusion, HHcy is an independent risk factor of AAA in a Chinese Han population, especially in the elderly and peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Longitudinal studies and clinical trials aimed to reduce homocysteine levels are warranted to assess the causal nature of these relationships
Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a Chinese Han population
Jie Liu,1,* Shang Wei Zuo,1,* Yue Li,1,* Xin Jia,1 Sen Hao Jia,1 Tao Zhang,2 Yu Xiang Song,1 Ying Qi Wei,3 Jiang Xiong,1 Yong Hua Hu,a,3 and Wei Guob,1
Completely sequenced plant genomes provide scope for designing a large number of microsatellite markers, which are useful in various aspects of crop breeding and genetic analysis. With the objective of developing genic but non-coding microsatellite (GNMS) markers for the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome, we characterized the frequency and relative distribution of microsatellite repeat-motifs in 18,935 predicted protein coding genes including 14,308 putative promoter sequences.
We identified 19,555 perfect GNMS repeats with densities ranging from 306.7/Mb in chromosome 1 to 450/Mb in chromosome 12 with an average of 357.5 GNMS per Mb. The average microsatellite density was maximum in the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) followed by those in introns, promoters, 3’UTRs and minimum in the coding sequences (CDS). Primers were designed for 17,966 (92%) GNMS repeats, including 4,288 (94%) hypervariable class I types, which were bin-mapped on the rice genome. The GNMS markers were most polymorphic in the intronic region (73.3%) followed by markers in the promoter region (53.3%) and least in the CDS (26.6%). The robust polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification efficiency and high polymorphic potential of GNMS markers over genic coding and random genomic microsatellite markers suggest their immediate use in efficient genotyping applications in rice. A set of these markers could assess genetic diversity and establish phylogenetic relationships among domesticated rice cultivar groups. We also demonstrated the usefulness of orthologous and paralogous conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) markers, identified in the putative rice promoter sequences, for comparative physical mapping and understanding of evolutionary and gene regulatory complexities among rice and other members of the grass family. The divergence between long-grained aromatics and subspecies japonica was estimated to be more recent (0.004 Mya) compared to short-grained aromatics from japonica (0.006 Mya) and long-grained aromatics from subspecies indica (0.014 Mya).
Our analyses showed that GNMS markers with their high polymorphic potential would be preferred candidate functional markers in various marker-based applications in rice genetics, genomics and breeding. The CNMS markers provided encouraging implications for their use in comparative genome mapping and understanding of evolutionary complexities in rice and other members of grass family.
Genic non-coding microsatellites in the rice genome: characterization, marker design and use in assessing genetic and evolutionary relationships among domesticated groups
Swarup Kumar Parida,1 Vivek Dalal,1 Ashok Kumar Singh,2 Nagendra Kumar Singh,1 and Trilochan Mohapatracorresponding author1