Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
439ºC at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:3278-14-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Coral reefs are the most diverse habitats in the marine realm. Their productivity, structural complexity, and biodiversity critically depend on ecosystem services provided by corals that are threatened because of climate change effects—in particular, ocean warming and acidification. The coral holobiont is composed of the coral animal host, endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, associated viruses, bacteria, and other microeukaryotes. In particular, the mandatory photosymbiosis with microalgae of the family Symbiodiniaceae and its consequences on the evolution, physiology, and stress resilience of the coral holobiont have yet to be fully elucidated. The functioning of the holobiont as a whole is largely unknown, although bacteria and viruses are presumed to play roles in metabolic interactions, immunity, and stress tolerance. In the context of climate change and anthropogenic threats on coral reef ecosystems, the Tara Pacific project aims to provide a baseline of the “-omics” complexity of the coral holobiont and its ecosystem across the Pacific Ocean and for various oceanographically distinct defined areas. Inspired by the previous Tara Oceans expeditions, the Tara Pacific expedition (2016-2018) has applied a pan-ecosystemic approach on coral reefs throughout the Pacific Ocean, drawing an east-west transect from Panama to Papua New Guinea and a south-north transect from Australia to Japan, sampling corals throughout 32 island systems with local replicates. Tara Pacific has developed and applied state-of-the-art technologies in very-high-throughput genetic sequencing and molecular analysis to reveal the entire microbial and chemical diversity as well as functional traits associated with coral holobionts, together with various measures on environmental forcing. This ambitious project aims at revealing a massive amount of novel biodiversity, shedding light on the complex links between genomes, transcriptomes, metabolomes, organisms, and ecosystem functions in coral reefs and providing a reference of the biological state of modern coral reefs in the Anthropocene.
The Tara Pacific expedition—A pan-ecosystemic approach of the “-omics” complexity of coral reef holobionts across the Pacific Ocean
Serge Planes,1,2,‡* Denis Allemand,3,‡ Sylvain Agostini,4 Bernard Banaigs,1 Emilie Boissin,1 Emmanuel Boss,5 Guillaume Bourdin,5,6 Chris Bowler,2,7 Eric Douville,8 J. Michel Flores,9 Didier Forcioli,10 Paola Furla,10 Pierre E. Galand,2,11 Jean-Francois Ghiglione,2,12 Eric Gilson,10 Fabien Lombard,6 Clementine Moulin,13 Stephane Pesant,14,15 Julie Poulain,16 Stephanie Reynaud,3 Sarah Romac,2,17 Matthew B. Sullivan,18 Shinichi Sunagawa,19 Olivier P. Thomas,20 Romain Trouble,2,13 Colomban de Vargas,2,17 Rebecca Vega Thurber,21 Christian R. Voolstra,22 Patrick Wincker,2,16 Didier Zoccola,3 and the Tara Pacific Consortium¶
Type IV collagen forms a network that provides the major structural support of basement membranes. We have determined the nucleotide alterations and phenotypes of 17 mutant alleles of the Caenorhabditis elegans alpha 2(IV) collagen gene let-2. All 17 mutations are within the triple helical (Gly-X-Y) repeat domain of the molecule. Fifteen of the mutations are replacements of Gly-X-Y repeat glycines with aspartate, glutamate or arginine, and they cause a wide range of phenotypes. The mildest alleles are nearly wild-type at 15 and 20 degrees C but embryonic lethal at 25 degrees C, while the most severe allele is embryonic lethal at all three temperatures. Mutations resulting in severe phenotypes are generally located in areas of lower calculated thermal stability of the type IV collagen molecule. An alanine to threonine substitution at position X of a Gly-X-Y triplet immediately following an interruption results in a severe phenotype. This mutation is unusual because substitutions at positions X or Y have not generally been found to cause strong phenotypes in C. elegans or human collagens. An intron splice acceptor mutation causes a strict embryonic lethal phenotype, but does not completely abolish gene function. Pairs of independent mutations affect each of three glycines, indicating a non-random distribution of mutations in the molecule. It is suggested that this clustering results because many glycine substitutions may cause dominant lethal or sterile phenotypes.
Mutations in the alpha 2(IV) basement membrane collagen gene of Caenorhabditis elegans produce phenotypes of differing severities.
M H Sibley, P L Graham, N von Mende, and J M Kramer
1994 Jul 15
The influence of cytosine methylation on the supercoil-stabilized B-Z equilibrium in Escherichia coli was analyzed by two independent assays. Both the M.EcoRI inhibition assay and the linking-number assay have been used previously to establish that dC-dG segments of sufficient lengths can exist as left-handed helices in vivo. A series of dC-dG plasmid inserts with Z-form potential, ranging in length from 14 to 74 base pairs, was investigated. Complete methylation of cytosine at all HhaI sites, including the inserts, was obtained by coexpression of the HhaI methyltransferase (M.HhaI) in cells also carrying a dC-dG-containing plasmid. Both assays showed that for all lengths of dC-dG inserts, the relative amounts of B and Z helices were shifted to more Z-DNA in the presence of M.HhaI than in the absence of M.HhaI. These results indicate that cytosine methylation enhances the formation of Z-DNA helices at the superhelix density present in E. coli. The B-Z equilibrium, in combination with site-specific base methylation, may constitute a concerted mechanism for the modulation of DNA topology and DNA-protein interactions.
Cytosine methylation enhances Z-DNA formation in vivo.
W Zacharias, A Jaworski, and R D Wells