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Infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can result in disastrous consequences. Previous research regarding injections and risk of TKA infection have produced conflicting results and in general have been limited by small cohort size.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if intraarticular injection before TKA increases the risk of postoperative infection and to identify if time between injection and TKA affect the risk of TKA infection.
The Humana data set was reviewed from 2007 to 2014 for all patients who received a knee injection before TKA. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and laterality modifiers were used to identify patients who underwent knee injection followed by ipsilateral TKA. Postoperative infection within 6 months of TKA was identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision/CPT codes that represent two infectious endpoints: any postoperative surgical site infection (encompasses all severities of infection) and operative intervention for TKA infection (surrogate for deep TKA infection). The injection cohort was stratified into 12 subgroups by monthly intervals out to 12 months corresponding to the number of months that had elapsed between injection and TKA. Risk of postoperative infection was compared between the injection and no injection cohorts. In total, 29,603 TKAs (35%) had an injection in the ipsilateral knee before the TKA procedure and 54,081 TKA cases (65%) did not. The PearlDiver database does not currently support line-by-line output of patient data, and so we were unable to perform a multivariate analysis to determine whether other important factors may have varied between the study groups that might have had a differential influence on the risk of infection between those groups. However, the Charlson Comorbidity index was no different between the injection and no injection cohorts (2.9 for both) suggesting similar comorbidity profiles between the groups.
The proportion of TKAs developing any postoperative infection was higher among TKAs that received an injection before TKA than in those that did not (4.4% versus 3.6%; odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.33; p < 0.001). Likewise, the proportion of TKAs developing infection resulting in return to the operating room after TKA was also higher among TKAs that received an injection before TKA than those that did not (1.49% versus 1.04%; OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.63; p < 0.001). Month-by-month analysis of time between injection and TKA revealed the odds of any postoperative infection remained higher for the injection cohort out to a duration of 6 months between injection and TKA (ORs ranged 1.23 to 1.46 when 1-6 months between injection and TKA; p < 0.05 for all) as did the odds of operative intervention for TKA infection when injection occurred within 7 months of TKA (OR ranged from 1.38 to 1.88 when 1-7 months between injection and TKA; p < 0.05 for all). When the duration between injection and TKA was longer than 6 or 7 months, the ORs were no longer elevated at these endpoints, respectively. Conclusions Injection before TKA was associated with a higher risk of postoperative infection and appears to be time-dependent with closer proximity between injection and TKA having increased odds of infection. Further research is needed to better evaluate the risk injection before TKA poses for TKA infection; a more definitive relationship could be established with a multivariate analysis to control for other known risk factors for TKA infection. Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.
The John N. Insall Award: Do Intraarticular Injections Increase the Risk of Infection After TKA?
Nicholas A. Bedard, MD, Andrew J. Pugely, MD, Jacob M. Elkins, MD, PhD, Kyle R. Duchman, MD, Robert W. Westermann, MD, Steve S. Liu, MD, Yubo Gao, PhD, and John J. Callaghan, MDcorresponding author
Introduction: There is increasing emphasis on the sagittal spino-pelvic alignment and its interpretation is of critical importance in the management of spinal disorders. A cross-sectional study of several spino-pelvic radiographic parameters was conducted to determine the physiological values of these parameters, to calculate the variations of these parameters according to epidemiological data, and to study the relationships among these parameters.
Material and method: Fifty normal healthy volunteers (29 males and 21 females) with no history of back pain were selected and were subjected to standing sagittal spino-pelvic radiographs. All the measurements of various radiographic parameters were performed with use of a software program. A statistical analysis was done to study the relationships among them.
Results: The mean values of pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar Lordosis Angle (LLA) were 48.52 ± 8.99 and 58.78 ± 9.51, respectively. There was statistical difference between male and female parameters in LLA, lumbo-sacral angle (LSA), sacral horizontal angle (SHA), sacral inclination angle (SIA), sacropelvic angle (PRS1), pelvisacral angle (PSA), and PI. A majority of parameters had higher values for female subjects when compared to male subjects. PI was positively correlated with LLA, pelvic angle (PA), pelvic overhang (PO), pelvic tilt (PT), sacrofemoral distance (SFD), SHA, and sacropelvic translation (SPT), which were highly significant, whereas LLA was positively correlated with SHA and SIA only. PI and LLA were both negatively correlated with PSA, pelvic thickness (PTH), and PRS1.
Conclusions: This study presents the various spino-pelvic radiographic parameter values of a sample of the normal asymptomatic Indian population. There was significant difference in radiographic parameters between males and females in about half of the parameters studied in the sample. The values obtained are comparable with the values presented as normal in the literature. A comparison of the study results with data published about other populations revealed no differences in any of the pelvic parameters between the Indian, Brazilian, and Korean populations.
Spino-pelvic alignment, Radiologic parameters, Pelvic incidence, Lumbar lordosis angle
Spino-pelvic radiological parameters in normal Indian population
Roop Singh,1,* Sushil Kumar Yadav,1 Sushma Sood,2 Rohtas Kumar Yadav,3 and Ravi Rohilla4
We investigated the potential application of preoperative serum metabolomes in predicting recurrence in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. From November 2012 to June 2014, patients who underwent potentially curative pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were examined. Among 57 patients, 32 were men; 42 had pancreatic head cancers. The 57 patients could be clearly categorized into two main clusters using 178 preoperative serum metabolomes. Patients within cluster 2 showed earlier tumor recurrence, compared with those within cluster 1 (p = 0.034). A nomogram was developed for predicting the probability of early disease-free survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Preoperative cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 levels and serum metabolomes PC.aa.C38_4, PC.ae.C42_5, and PC.ae.C38_6 were the most powerful preoperative clinical variables with which to predict 6-month and 1-year cancer recurrence-free survival after radical pancreatectomy, with a Harrell’s concordance index of 0.823 (95% CI: 0.750-0.891) and integrated area under the curve of 0.816 (95% CI: 0.736-0.893). Patients with resected pancreatic cancer could be categorized according to their different metabolomes to predict early cancer recurrence. Preoperative detectable parameters, serum CA 19-9, PC.aa.C38_4, PC.ae.C42_5, and PC.ae.C38_6 were the most powerful predictors of early recurrence of pancreatic cancer.
Subject terms: Cancer genomics, Surgical oncology
Developing a preoperative serum metabolome-based recurrence-predicting nomogram for patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
Seoung Yoon Rho,1,2 Sang-Guk Lee,3 Minsu Park,4 Jinae Lee,4 Sung Hwan Lee,1,5 Ho Kyoung Hwang,1,2 Min Jung Lee,6 Young-Ki Paik,6 Woo Jung Lee,1,2 and Chang Moo Kangcorresponding author1,2