White crystalline powder
Aurantii fructus immaturus
960.7ºC at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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Drynaria roosii (Nakaike) is a traditional Chinese medicinal fern, known as ‘GuSuiBu’. The effective components, naringin and neoeriocitrin, share a highly similar chemical structure and medicinal function. Our HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) results showed that the accumulation of naringin/neoeriocitrin depended on specific tissues or ages. However, little was known about the expression patterns of naringin/neoeriocitrin-related genes involved in their regulatory pathways. Due to a lack of basic genetic information, we applied a combination of single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and second-generation sequencing (SGS) to generate the complete and full-length transcriptome of D. roosii. According to the SGS data, the differentially expressed gene (DEG)-based heat map analysis revealed that naringin/neoeriocitrin-related gene expression exhibited obvious tissue- and time-specific transcriptomic differences. Using the systems biology method of modular organization analysis, we clustered 16,472 DEGs into 17 gene modules and studied the relationships between modules and tissue/time point samples, as well as modules and naringin/neoeriocitrin contents. We found that naringin/neoeriocitrin-related DEGs distributed in nine distinct modules, and DEGs in these modules showed significantly different patterns of transcript abundance to be linked to specific tissues or ages. Moreover, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) results further identified that PAL, 4CL and C4H, and C3H and HCT acted as the major hub genes involved in naringin and neoeriocitrin synthesis, respectively, and exhibited high co-expression with MYB- and basic helix-leucine-helix (bHLH)-regulated genes. In this work, modular organization and co-expression networks elucidated the tissue and time specificity of the gene expression pattern, as well as hub genes associated with naringin/neoeriocitrin synthesis in D. roosii. Simultaneously, the comprehensive transcriptome data set provided important genetic information for further research on D. roosii.
Full-Length Transcriptome Sequencing and Modular Organization Analysis of the Naringin/Neoeriocitrin-Related Gene Expression Pattern in Drynaria Roosii
Mei-Yu Sun 1 , Jing-Yi Li 1 2 , Dong Li 1 , Feng-Jie Huang 1 , Di Wang 1 , Hui Li 1 , Quan Xing 1 , Hui-Bin Zhu 3 , Lei Shi 1
2018 Jul 1
Naringin is considered the main effective compound of Drynaria Rhizome, which is used commonly in the treatment of osteoporosis in traditional Chinese medicine. However, we found neoeriocitrin, a new compound isolated from Drynaria Rhizome, showed a better activity than naringin on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1. Both neoeriocitrin and naringin exhibited the best effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation at concentration of 2μg/ml. Neoeriocitrin more significantly improved proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as up-regulated Runx2, COLI and OCN expression by 56%, 37% and 14% respectively than naringin. Furthermore, neoeriocitrin could rescue the inhibition effect of cell differentiation induced by PD98059 to some degree. Therefore, neoeriocitrin may be a new promising candidate drug for treatment of osteoporosis.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Neoeriocitrin and Naringin on Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation in MC3T3-E1
Lina Li 1 , Zhen Zeng, Guoping Cai
2011 Aug 15
A sensitive, specific method has been developed for simultaneous determination of neoeriocitrin and naringin in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. With hesperidin as the internal standard, plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation with methanol. Analysis was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column using acetonitrile-water (20:80, v/v) as the mobile phase. Detection was performed by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Linear calibration curves of neoeriocitrin and naringin were obtained over the concentration ranges of 15.0-960 ng/mL and 12.0-1200 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 9.7% and 7.6% for neoeriocitrin and 7.8% and 12.9% for naringin. The accuracy was from -4.3% to 0.43% for neoeriocitrin and from -3.8% to 3.0% for naringin. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of neoeriocitrin and naringin in rats after oral administration of a Chinese compound formulation, gushudan.
Simultaneous Determination of Neoeriocitrin and Naringin in Rat Plasma After Oral Administration of a Chinese Compound Formulation by UPLC-MS-MS
Chao Li 1 , Chunjuan Yang, Xuling Peng, Zhili Xiong, Famei Li