Algicidal activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bung on Microcystis aeruginosa-Towards identification of algicidal substance and determination of inhibition mechanism PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.05.068 Chemosphere. 2013 Oct;93(6):997-1004. The present study was to isolate and identify a potent algicidal compound from extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza and study the potential inhibition mechanism on Microcystis aeruginosa. Column chromatography and bioassay-guided fractionation methods were carried out to yield neo-przewaquinone A, which was identified by spectral analysis. The EC50 of neo-przewaquinone A on M. aeruginosa were 4.68 mg L-1. In addition, neo-przewaquinone A showed relatively higher security on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus, with the EC50 values of 14.78 and 10.37 mg L-1, respectively. For the potential inhibition mechanisms, neo-przewaquinone A caused M. aeruginosa cells morphologic damage or lysis, increased malondialdehyde content and decreased the soluble protein content, total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity, and significantly inhibited three photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbD, and rbcL). The results demonstrated the algicidal effect of neo-przewaquinone A on M. aeruginosa and provided the possible inhibition mechanisms. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Increasing concerns about the spread of airborne pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) have attracted public attention to bioaerosols and protection against them. The airborne pathogens are likely to be expelled from coughing or speaking, so the physical data of the exhaled particles plays a key role in analyzing the pathway of airborne viruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the initial velocity and the angle of the exhaled airflow from coughing and speaking of 17 males and 9 females using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and acrylic indoor chamber. The results showed that the average initial coughing velocity was 15.3 m/s for the males and 10.6 m/s for the females, while the average initial speaking velocity was 4.07 m/s and 2.31 m/s respectively. The angle of the exhaled air from coughing was around 38° for the males and 32° for the females, while that of the exhaled air from speaking was around 49° and 78° respectively. Also, the linear relation between the tested subject’s height and their coughing and speaking velocity was shown in this study.
Keywords: Airborne pathogens, Angle, Bioaerosols, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Velocity
Study on the initial velocity distribution of exhaled air from coughing and speaking
Soon-Bark Kwon,a Jaehyung Park,a Jaeyoun Jang,a Youngmin Cho,a Duck-Shin Park,a Changsoo Kim,b Gwi-Nam Bae,c and Am Jangd,⁎