2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, (Z)-/Nerol/NEROL BJ/2,6-Octadien-1-ol,3,7-dimethyl-, (2Z)-/(Z)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol/NEROLEX/cis-2,6-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-8-ol/(2Z)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol/Vernol/NEROL 70/NERYL ALCOHOL/cis-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol/Neraniol/2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, (2Z)-/cis-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol,Nerol/(Z)-Nerol/(2Z)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol
229.5±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:106-25-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
In this study, nerol was biosynthesized in the metabolic engineered Escherichia coli from glucose for the first time. Firstly, the truncated neryl diphosphate synthase gene tNDPS1 was expressed that catalyzes isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to form neryl diphosphate (NPP), and then the nerol synthase gene GmNES was co-expressed to synthesize the final product nerol from NPP. The engineered strain LZ001 accumulated 0.053 ± 0.015 mg/L of nerol. Secondly, the IDI1, MVD1, ERG8, ERG12, tHMG1 and ERG13 were co-expressed to increase the supply of IPP and DMAPP. Finally, the heterologous ERG10 gene was overexpressed, and the recombinant strain LZ005 produced 1.564 ± 0.102 mg/L of nerol in shaking-flask culture, which represents a 29.51-fold increase over LZ001 strain. This study shows the novel method for the biosynthesis of nerol and provides new metabolic engineering strategy for the production of terpenoids.
Escherichia coli; MVA pathway; Nerol; Neryl diphosphate.
Biosynthesis of Nerol From Glucose in the Metabolic Engineered Escherichia Coli
Zhen Zong 1 , Qingsong Hua 1 , Xinyu Tong 1 , Dongsheng Li 1 , Chao Wang 1 , Daoyi Guo 2 , Zhijie Liu 3
The contamination of food with Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxins is one of the most serious safety problems in the world. In this study of nerol (NEL)’s antifungal mechanism of action, we observed morphological and physiological changes in Aspergillus flavus. We found that NEL resulted in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ions (Ca2+). On ROS assays, compared with the controls, the proportion of fluorescent cells treated with concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 μL/mL NEL increased to 8.4 ± 1.07%, 10.2 ± 1.72%, 13.4 ± 0.50%, and 26.2 ± 4.21%, respectively. Increased mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by the interactions between Ca2+ and ROS subsequently activate the release of cytochrome c and caspase activity. Characteristic changes of apoptosis were also observed via various detection methods, including phosphatidylserine externalization, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Meanwhile, we found that the expression of CaMKs increased significantly in NEL-treated cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that NEL has great potential as an eco-friendly antifungal agent for food preservation.
A. flavus; Antifungal; Apoptosis; Calcium; NEL; Reactive oxygen species.
Nerol-induced Apoptosis Associated With the Generation of ROS and Ca 2+ Overload in Saprotrophic Fungus Aspergillus Flavus
Jun Tian 1 2 3 , Yeyun Gan 4 , Chao Pan 4 , Man Zhang 4 , Xueyan Wang 5 , Xudong Tang 6 , Xue Peng 7
The antifungal activity of Nerol (NEL) against Candida albicans, a pathogenic fungus, has a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.4mM that causes noteworthy candidacidal activity through an apoptosis-like mechanism. Calcium (Ca2+) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which are the major causes of apoptosis, were determined in C. albicans cells treated with NEL and were found to increase, which related to mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption. A series of characteristic changes of apoptosis caused by NEL, including mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c (cyt c) release, and metacaspase activation were examined using a flow cytometer and Western blot. The results showed that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and ROS led to dramatically decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); cyt c was also released from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Other early apoptotic features were also observed with the metacaspase activation. Finally, the morphological changes of the cells were observed, including phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation through Annexin V-FITC and PI double staining, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining. The results supported the hypothesis that NEL was involved in the apoptosis of C. albicans cells not only at the early stages, but also at the late stages. In summary, NEL can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption via elevation of Ca2+ and ROS leading to apoptosis in C. albicans. This research on the mechanism of cell death triggered by NEL against C. albicans has important significance for providing a novel treatment of C. albicans infections.
Antifungal; Apoptosis; Calcium; Candida albicans; Nerol; Reactive oxygen species.
Nerol Triggers Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Disruption via Elevation of Ca 2+ and ROS in Candida Albicans
Jun Tian 1 , Zhaoqun Lu 2 , Yanzhen Wang 2 , Man Zhang 2 , Xueyan Wang 3 , Xudong Tang 3 , Xue Peng 2 , Hong Zeng 4