This product is isolated and purified from the barks of Phellodendron chinense
niloticin/(13α,14β,17α,20S,23R,24S)-23-Hydroxy-24,25-epoxylanost-7-en-3-one/Lanost-7-en-3-one, 24,25-epoxy-23-hydroxy-, (13α,14β,17α,20S,23R,24S)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
538.5±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Recurrent chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease is a common problem which sometimes leads to excess use of medical care. Although many studies have examined the causes of pain in these patients, few clinical trials have evaluated treatment. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2005 and last updated in 2010. The studies reviewed in this paper provide an insight into the effectiveness of psychological interventions for this group of patients.
To assess the effects of psychological interventions for chest pain, quality of life and psychological parameters in people with non‐specific chest pain.
We searched the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, Issue 4 of 12, 2014 and DARE Issue 2 of 4, 2014), MEDLINE (OVID, 1966 to April week 4 2014), EMBASE (OVID, 1980 to week 18 2014), CINAHL (EBSCO, 1982 to April 2014), PsycINFO (OVID, 1887 to April week 5 2014) and BIOSIS Previews (Web of Knowledge, 1969 to 2 May 2014). We also searched citation lists and contacted study authors.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with standardised outcome methodology that tested any form of psychotherapy for chest pain with normal anatomy. Diagnoses included non‐specific chest pain (NSCP), atypical chest pain, syndrome X or chest pain with normal coronary anatomy (as either inpatients or outpatients).
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed quality of studies. We contacted trial authors for further information about the included RCTs.
We included two new papers, one of which was an update of a previously included study. Therefore, a total of 17 RCTs with 1006 randomised participants met the inclusion criteria, with the one new study contributing an additional 113 participants. There was a significant reduction in reports of chest pain in the first three months following the intervention: random‐effects relative risk = 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92). This was maintained from three to nine months afterwards: relative risk 0.59 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.76). There was also a significant increase in the number of chest pain‐free days up to three months following the intervention: mean difference (MD) 3.00 (95% CI 0.23 to 5.77). This was associated with reduced chest pain frequency (random‐effects MD ‐2.26, 95% CI ‐4.41 to ‐0.12) but there was no evidence of effect of treatment on chest pain frequency from three to twelve months (random‐effects MD ‐0.81, 95% CI ‐2.35 to 0.74). There was no effect on severity (random‐effects MD ‐4.64 (95% CI ‐12.18 to 2.89) up to three months after the intervention. Due to the nature of the main interventions of interest, it was impossible to blind the therapists as to whether the participant was in the intervention or control arm. In addition, in three studies the blinding of participants was expressly forbidden by the local ethics committee because of issues in obtaining fully informed consent . For this reason, all studies had a high risk of performance bias. In addition, three studies were thought to have a high risk of outcome bias. In general, there was a low risk of bias in the other domains. However, there was high heterogeneity and caution is required in interpreting these results. The wide variability in secondary outcome measures made it difficult to integrate findings from studies.
This Cochrane review suggests a modest to moderate benefit for psychological interventions, particularly those using a cognitive‐behavioural framework, which was largely restricted to the first three months after the intervention. Hypnotherapy is also a possible alternative. However, these conclusions are limited by high heterogeneity in many of the results and low numbers of participants in individual studies. The evidence for other brief interventions was less clear. Further RCTs of psychological interventions for NSCP with follow‐up periods of at least 12 months are needed.
Humans, Behavior Therapy, Chest Pain, Chest Pain/psychology, Chest Pain/therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods, Coronary Vessels, Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology, Hypnosis, Microvascular Angina, Microvascular Angina/psychology, Microvascular Angina/therapy, Psychotherapy, Psychotherapy/methods, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Recurrence, Treatment Outcome
Psychological interventions for symptomatic management of non‐specific chest pain in patients with normal coronary anatomy
Steve R Kisely,corresponding author Leslie A Campbell, Michael J Yelland, and Anita Paydar
Basis for the effects of nitrogen (N) on wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) and on the establishment of processing quality are far from clear. The response of GSPs and processing quality parameters to four N levels of four common wheat cultivars were investigated at two sites over two growing seasons. Except gluten index (GI), processing quality parameters as well as GSPs quantities were remarkably improved by increasing N level. N level explained 4.2~59.2% and 10.4~80.0% variability in GSPs fractions and processing quality parameters, respectively. The amount of N remobilized from vegetative organs except spike was significantly increased when enhancing N application. GSPs fractions and processing quality parameters except GI were only highly and positively correlated with the amount of N remobilized from stem with sheath. N reassimilation in grain was remarkably strengthened by the elevated activity and expression level of glutamine synthetase. Transcriptome analysis showed the molecular mechanism of seeds in response to N levels during 10~35 days post anthesis. Collectively, we provided comprehensive understanding of N-responding mechanisms with respect to wheat processing quality from N source to GSPs biosynthesis at the agronomic, physiological and molecular levels, and screened candidate genes for quality breeding.
Mechanisms of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain storage proteins in response to nitrogen application and its impacts on processing quality
Ting Zheng,#1 Peng-Fei Qi,corresponding author#1 Yong-Li Cao,1 Ya-Nan Han,1 Hong-Liang Ma,2 Zhen-Ru Guo,1 Yan Wang,1 Yuan-Yuan Qiao,1 Shi-Yu Hua,2 Hai-Yue Yu,2 Jiang-Ping Wang,1 Jing Zhu,1 Cai-Yi Zhou,1 Ya-Zhou Zhang,1 Qing Chen,1 Li Kong,1 Ji-Rui Wang,1 Qian-Tao Jiang,1 Ze-Hong Yan,1 Xiu-Jin Lan,1 Gao-Qiong Fan,2 Yu-Ming Wei,1 and You-Liang Zhengcorresponding author1
Phage T4 has provided countless contributions to the paradigms of genetics and biochemistry. Its complete genome sequence of 168,903 bp encodes about 300 gene products. T4 biology and its genomic sequence provide the best-understood model for modern functional genomics and proteomics. Variations on gene expression, including overlapping genes, internal translation initiation, spliced genes, translational bypassing, and RNA processing, alert us to the caveats of purely computational methods. The T4 transcriptional pattern reflects its dependence on the host RNA polymerase and the use of phage-encoded proteins that sequentially modify RNA polymerase; transcriptional activator proteins, a phage sigma factor, anti-sigma, and sigma decoy proteins also act to specify early, middle, and late promoter recognition. Posttranscriptional controls by T4 provide excellent systems for the study of RNA-dependent processes, particularly at the structural level. The redundancy of DNA replication and recombination systems of T4 reveals how phage and other genomes are stably replicated and repaired in different environments, providing insight into genome evolution and adaptations to new hosts and growth environments. Moreover, genomic sequence analysis has provided new insights into tail fiber variation, lysis, gene duplications, and membrane localization of proteins, while high-resolution structural determination of the “cell-puncturing device,” combined with the three-dimensional image reconstruction of the baseplate, has revealed the mechanism of penetration during infection. Despite these advances, nearly 130 potential T4 genes remain uncharacterized. Current phage-sequencing initiatives are now revealing the similarities and differences among members of the T4 family, including those that infect bacteria other than Escherichia coli. T4 functional genomics will aid in the interpretation of these newly sequenced T4-related genomes and in broadening our understanding of the complex evolution and ecology of phages—the most abundant and among the most ancient biological entities on Earth.
Bacteriophage T4 Genome
Eric S. Miller, Elizabeth Kutter, Gisela Mosig, Fumio Arisaka, Takashi Kunisawa, Wolfgang Ruger