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Needlestick injury (NSI) is one of the most burdensome professional hazards in any medical setting; it can lead to transmission of fatal infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. In the United States, the annual cost burden was estimated as somewhere between $118 million to $591 million; in the United Kingdom it is approximated to be £500,000 (US$919,117.65) per the National Health Service.
This is the first published paper on the national cost burden of NSIs in Japan. A systematic literature review was conducted to review previous study design in global studies and to extract parameter values from Japanese studies. We conducted abstract searches through PubMed and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (Ichushi), together with grey literature and snowball searches. A simple economic model was developed to calculate cost burden of NSIs from a societal perspective over a one-year time horizon. We assumed all NSIs are reported and perfect adherence in post NSI management that presented in the labour compensation scheme. Local guidelines were also referenced to extract resource utilization. Lastly, a deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted and a scenario analysis which considered a payer perspective was also included.
Result and conclusion
The national cost burden of in-hospital NSIs is estimated as ¥33.4 billion (US$302 million) annually, based on an average cost per NSI of ¥63,711 (US$577) and number of NSIs at 525,000/year. 70% of the cost is due to initial laboratory tests, followed by productivity loss, estimated at 20% of the total cost. Cost of contaminated NSIs remains at 5% of the total cost. Change in number of NSIs significantly influences outcomes. Variation in post-exposure management practices suggests a need for NSI specific National guidelines and holistic labour compensation scheme development in Japan.
Estimating the national cost burden of in-hospital needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in Japan
Hiroyuki Kunishima, Conceptualization, Validation,1,¤a‡ Emiko Yoshida, Investigation, Methodology,2,* Joe Caputo, Conceptualization, Validation,3,‡ and Hiroshige Mikamo, Conceptualization, Validation4,¤b‡ Kamal Gholipour, Editor
About 95% of patients with Glioblastoma (GBM) show tumor relapse, leaving them with limited therapeutic options as recurrent tumors are most often resistant to the first line chemotherapy standard Temozolomide (TMZ). To identify molecular pathways involved in TMZ resistance, primary GBM Stem-like Cells (GSCs) were isolated, characterized, and selected for TMZ resistance in vitro. Subsequently, RNA sequencing analysis was performed and revealed a total of 49 differentially expressed genes (|log2-fold change| > 0.5 and adjusted p-value < 0.1) in TMZ resistant stem-like cells compared to their matched DMSO control cells. Among up-regulated genes, we identified carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) as a candidate gene correlated with glioma malignancy and patient survival. Notably, we describe consistent up-regulation of CA2 not only in TMZ resistant GSCs on mRNA and protein level, but also in patient-matched clinical samples of first manifest and recurrent tumors. Co-treatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Acetazolamid (ACZ) sensitized cells to TMZ induced cell death. Cumulatively, our findings illustrate the potential of CA2 as a chemosensitizing target in recurrent GBM and provide a rationale for a therapy associated inhibition of CA2 to overcome TMZ induced chemoresistance.
glioblastoma, GBM Stem-like cells, temozolomide, chemoresistance, GBM recurrence, transcriptomics, acetazolamide, carbonic anhydrase 2
Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Temozolomide Resistant Primary GBM Stem-Like Cells and Recurrent GBM Identifies Up-Regulation of the Carbonic Anhydrase CA2 Gene as Resistance Factor
Ricarda Hannen,1 Martin Selmansberger,2 Maria Hauswald,1 Axel Pagenstecher,3 Andrea Nist,4 Thorsten Stiewe,4,5 Till Acker,6 Barbara Carl,1 Christopher Nimsky,1 and Jorg Walter Bartsch1,*
The risk of cholera outbreak remains high in Cameroon. This is because of the persistent cholera outbreaks in neighboring countries coupled with the poor hygiene and sanitation conditions in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to assess the readiness of health facilities to respond to cholera outbreak in four cholera-prone districts in Cameroon.
A cross-sectional study was conducted targeting all health facilities in four health districts, labeled as cholera hotspots in Cameroon in August 2016. Data collection was done by interview with a questionnaire and by observation regarding the availability of resources and materials for surveillance and case management, access to water, hygiene, and sanitation. Data analysis was descriptive with STATA 11.
A total of 134 health facilities were evaluated, most of which (108/134[81%]) were urban facilities. The preparedness regarding surveillance was limited with 13 (50%) health facilities in the Far North and 22(20%) in the Littoral having cholera case definition guide. ORS for Case management was present in 8(31%) health facilities in the Far North and in 94(87%) facilities in the littoral. Less than half of the health facilities had a hand washing protocol and 7(5.1%) did not have any source of drinking water or relied on unimproved sources like lake. A total of 4(3.0%) health facilities, all in the Far North region, did not have a toilet.
The level of preparedness of health facilities in Cameroon for cholera outbreak response presents a lot of weaknesses. These are present in terms of lack of basic surveillance and case management materials and resources, low access to WaSH. If not addressed now, these facilities might not be able to play their role in case there is an outbreak and might even turn to be transmission milieus.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s12913-019-4315-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cholera, Preparedness, Hygiene, Sanitation, Water, Surveillance, Health facility, WaSH
Health facility preparedness for cholera outbreak response in four cholera-prone districts in Cameroon: a cross sectional study
Jerome Ateudjieu,1,2 Martin Ndinakie Yakum,corresponding author1 Andre Pascal Goura,1 Sonia Sonkeng Nafack,1 Anthony Njimbia Chebe,1 Joliette Nguefack Azakoh,1 Benjamin Azike Chukuwchindun,1 Eugene Joel Bayiha,1 Corine Kangmo,1 Gnodjom Victorin Boris Tachegno,1 and Anne-Cecile Zoung Kanyi Bissek3
In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anthrone and chromone from the latex of Aloe harlana Reynolds. PUMID/DOI：21452374 Phytother Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):1756-60. In the search for new antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds from plants, the latex of the medicinal plant Aloe harlana Reynolds from Ethiopia was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation, which led to the isolation of two known compounds, anthrone (aloin) and chromone (7-O-methylaloeresin A). The latex and its two constituents were assessed for their possible antimicrobial activities against 23 bacterial and four fungal strains using the disc diffusion method and their antioxidant activity by two complementary test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2-deoxyribose degradation assay methods. The isolated compounds showed promising results against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains in comparison with standard drugs. Moreover, 7-O-methylaloeresin A exhibited good activity against multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 11994) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 1255) with MIC values of 0.72 and 0.18?mm, respectively. Among the fungal strains tested, Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was the most susceptible organism to the latex and the two isolated compounds. The latex and isolated compounds also showed significant activities on both antioxidant assays with the highest activity being observed for 7-O-methylaloeresin A, which gave IC(50) values of 0.026?mm and 0.021?mm for DPPH and 2-deoxyribose degradation assay, respectively. These findings support the traditional uses of the plant for the treatment of various infectious and inflammatory diseases Active constituents from Aloe arborescens as BACE inhibitors. PUMID/DOI：17184120 Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Oct;41(10):1000-3. RESULTS:||||Eight compounds were isolated and their structures identified as 6'-O-isobutyryl aloenin A (1), aloenin A (2), aloe-emodin (3), (E)-2-acetonyl-8-(2'-O-feruloxyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-methoxy-5-methyl-chromone (4), 7-O-Methylaloeresin A (5), babarloin A (6), elgonica-dimer A (7), and elgonica-dimer B (8), separately.||||CONCLUSION:||||Compound 1 is a new compound, and compound 4 was isolated from A. arborescens for the first time. Pharmacological tests indicated that 2, 4, 5 and 6 have moderate inhibitory active on BACE.