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  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BD-P0218

  • Specification : 99.0%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 125150-67-6

  • Formula : C44H70O16

  • Molecular Weight : 855.03

  • Volume : 25mg

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Liriope spicata

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Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.

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WGK Germany


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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:125150-67-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

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With a great interest, we read the article by Neidenbach et al. on non-cardiac comorbidities in German adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). ACHD always bear an increased risk of developing concomitant non-cardiac comorbidities and complications and impose a great healthcare burden. Limited large-scale data from the United States (US) on this focus incited us to write this brief report. Gilboa et al. estimated nearly 2.4 million people living with CHD (1.4 million adults, 1 million children) in the US in 2010. To have a better nationwide prospect of the current scenario, we looked at the extra-cardiac comorbidities among ACHD patients hospitalized in the US using the National Inpatient Sample database (NIS) for years 2013-2014. The burden of extracardiac comorbidities among the NIS cohort in the US was diverse as compared to the German outpatient ACHD cohort. Our study reports a higher burden of endocrinological, hematological, metabolic, pulmonary, psychiatric, renal and rheumatological comorbidities as compared to the German cohort. However, the burden of gastrointestinal and hepatological comorbidities was higher in the German outpatient cohort. In addition, ACHD patients with non-cardiac comorbidities were older except for those suffering from the psychiatric illnesses as compared to ACHD hospitalizations without comorbidities. It is imperative for the clinicians to understand the non-cardiac complications which a patient might encounter during a lifetime, and which could further complicate the management of ACHD and increases the risk of mortality.


Sandeep Singh,1 Rupak Desai,corresponding author2 Hee Kong Fong,3 Ashish Sadolikar,4 Suparn Samani,5 and Hemant Goyal6


Extra-cardiac comorbidities or complications in adults with congenital heart disease: a nationwide inpatient experience in the United States


Sandeep Singh,1 Rupak Desai,corresponding author2 Hee Kong Fong,3 Ashish Sadolikar,4 Suparn Samani,5 and Hemant Goyal6

Publish date

2018 Dec;




High-grade gliomas are a type of malignant brain tumour. Optimal management often includes maximal surgical resection. 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (5-ALA) is an imaging agent that makes a high-grade glioma fluoresce under blue light, which can help guide the surgeon when removing the tumour. We conducted a health technology assessment of 5-ALA-guided surgical resection of high-grade gliomas, which included an evaluation of effectiveness, safety, the budget impact of publicly funding 5-ALA, and patient preferences and values.

We performed a systematic literature search of the clinical evidence to retrieve systematic reviews, and selected and reported results from one review that was recent, of high quality, and relevant to our research question. We complemented the identified systematic review with a literature search to identify randomized controlled trials published after the review. We reported the risk of bias of each included study and the quality of the body of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. We also performed a systematic economic literature search to identify economic studies that compared 5-ALA-guided surgical resection of high-grade gliomas with standard surgical care or other intraoperative imaging modalities. We did not conduct a primary economic evaluation due to lack of high-quality published clinical evidence evaluating 5-ALA-guided surgical resection. From the perspective of the Ontario Ministry of Health, we analyzed the 5-year budget impact of publicly funding 5-ALA-guided surgical resection for adults with newly diagnosed, primary, high-grade gliomas for which resection is considered feasible. To contextualize the potential value of 5-ALA, we spoke with someone who had experience with high-grade glioma, 5-ALA-guided resection, and standard surgical treatment.

We included one systematic review reporting on a single randomized controlled trial in the clinical evidence review. 5-ALA increased the proportion of patients achieving complete tumour resection compared with standard care (relative risk of incomplete resection 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.71; GRADE: Low). Evidence was uncertain for an effect on overall survival with 5-ALA (hazard ratio for death 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.62-1.07; GRADE: Low), but there may be an improvement in 6-month progression-free survival (GRADE: Very low). Adverse events between groups was insufficiently reported, but appeared similar between groups for overall and neurological adverse events, with an observed increase in neurological deficits 48 hours after surgery with 5-ALA (GRADE: Very low). The economic literature search identified five studies that met our inclusion criteria because they evaluated the cost-effectiveness of 5-ALA-guided surgical resection as compared with surgery with a standard operating microscope under white light (“white-light microscopy”). Most of these studies found 5-ALA-guided surgical resection was cost-effective compared to white-light microscopy for high-grade gliomas. However, all studies derived clinical model inputs of the comparative safety and effectiveness parameters of 5-ALA from limited and low-quality evidence. Public funding of 5-ALA-guided surgical resection in Ontario over the next 5 years would result in a budget impact of about $930,000 in year 1 to about $1,765,000 in year 5, yielding a total budget impact of about $7,500,000 over this period. The one participant we interviewed had experience with high-grade glioma, standard surgical treatment, and 5-ALA-guided resection. The participant felt that 5-ALA-guided resection resulted in accurate tumour removal and also found it reassuring that 5-ALA could help the surgeon better visualize the tumour.

5-ALA-guided surgical resection appears to improve the extent of resection of high-grade gliomas compared with surgery using standard white-light microscopy (GRADE: Low). The evidence suggests 5-ALA-guided resection may improve overall survival; however, we cannot exclude the possibility of no effect (Grade: Low). 5-ALA may improve 6-month progression-free survival, although the results are highly uncertain (GRADE: Very low). There is an uncertain impact on overall or neurological adverse events (GRADE: Very low). We did not identify any economic studies conducted from the perspective of the Ontario or Canadian public health care payer. Of the studies that met our inclusion criteria, most found 5-ALA-guided surgical resection was cost-effective compared to white-light microscopy for high-grade gliomas. However, clinical model inputs for the comparative effectiveness and safety of 5-ALA were based on limited and low-quality evidence. We estimate that publicly funding 5-ALA-guided surgical resection in Ontario over the next 5 years would result in a total 5-year budget impact of about $7,500,000. For people diagnosed with high-grade gliomas, 5-ALA is seen positively as a useful imaging tool for brain tumour resection.


5-Aminolevulinic Acid Hydrochloride (5-ALA)-Guided Surgical Resection of High-Grade Gliomas: A Health Technology Assessment


Ontario Health (Quality)

Publish date





Development of cortical interneurons continues until the end of human pregnancy. Premature birth deprives the newborns from the supply of maternal estrogen and a secure intrauterine environment. Indeed, preterm infants suffer from neurobehavioral disorders. This can result from both preterm birth and associated postnatal complications, which might disrupt recruitment and maturation of cortical interneurons. We hypothesized that interneuron subtypes, including parvalbumin-positive (PV+), somatostatin-positive (SST+), calretinin-positive (CalR+), and neuropeptide Y-positive (NPY+) interneurons, were recruited in the upper and lower cortical layers in a distinct manner with advancing gestational age. In addition, preterm birth would disrupt the heterogeneity of cortical interneurons, which might be reversed by estrogen treatment. These hypotheses were tested by analyzing autopsy samples from premature infants and evaluating the effect of estrogen supplementation in prematurely delivered rabbits. The PV+ and CalR+ neurons were abundant, whereas SST+ and NPY+ neurons were few in cortical layers of preterm human infants. Premature birth of infants reduced the density of PV+ or GAD67+ neurons and increased SST+ interneurons in the upper cortical layers. Importantly, 17 β-estradiol treatment in preterm rabbits increased the number of PV+ neurons in the upper cortical layers relative to controls at postnatal day 14 (P14) and P21 and transiently reduced SST population at P14. Moreover, protein and mRNA levels of Arx, a key regulator of cortical interneuron maturation and migration, were higher in estrogen-treated rabbits relative to controls. Therefore, deficits in PV+ and excess of SST+ neurons in premature newborns are ameliorated by estrogen replacement, which can be attributed to elevated Arx levels. Estrogen replacement might enhance neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely preterm infants.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Premature birth often leads to neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral disorders, which may be ascribed to disturbances in the development and maturation of cortical interneurons. Here, we show that preterm birth in humans is associated with reduced population of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons and an excess of somatostatin-expressing interneurons in the cerebral cortex. More importantly, 17 β-estradiol treatment increased the number of PV+ neurons in preterm-born rabbits, which appears to be mediated by an elevation in the expression of Arx transcription factor. Hence the present study highlights prematurity-induced reduction in PV+ neurons in human infants and reversal in their population by estrogen replacement in preterm rabbits. Because preterm birth drops plasma estrogen level 100-fold, estrogen replacement in extremely preterm infants might improve their developmental outcome and minimize neurobehavioral disorders.


Arx, cerebral cortex, estrogen, interneuron, parvalbumin, somatostatin


Estrogen Treatment Reverses Prematurity-Induced Disruption in Cortical Interneuron Population


Sanjeet Panda,1,6 Preeti Dohare,4 Samhita Jain,1 Nirzar Parikh,4 Pranav Singla,4 Rana Mehdizadeh,1 Damon W. Klebe,4 George M. Kleinman,3 Bokun Cheng,4 and Praveen Ballabhcorresponding author1,2,4,5

Publish date

2018 Aug 22;

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