Ophiopogonin D: A new herbal agent against osteoporosis. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.01.002 Bone. 2015 May;74:18-28. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, is a potent anti-oxidative agent. We hypothesized that OP-D demonstrates anti-osteoporosis effects via decreasing ROS generation in mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and a macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. We investigated OP-D on osteogenic and osteoclastic differentiation under oxidative status. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to establish an oxidative damage model. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Then, we searched the molecular mechanism of OP-D against osteoporosis. Our results revealed that OP-D significantly promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and improved some osteogenic markers. Moreover, OP-D reduced TRAP activity and the mRNA expressions of osteoclastic genes in RAW264.7 cells. OP-D suppressed ROS generation in both MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cells. OP-D treatment reduced the activity of serum bone degradation markers, including CTX-1 and TRAP. Further research showed that OP-D displayed anti-osteoporosis effects via reducing ROS through the FoxO3a-β-catenin signaling pathway. In summary, our results indicated that the protective effects of OP-D against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in oxidative stress via the FoxO3a-β-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting that OP-D may be a beneficial herbal agent in bone-related disorders, such as osteoporosis. Ophiopogonin D attenuates doxorubicin-induced autophagic cell death by relieving mitochondrial damage in vitro and in vivo. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1124/jpet.114.219261 J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015 Jan;352(1):166-74. It has been reported that ophiopogonin D (OP-D), a steroidal glycoside and an active component extracted from Ophiopogon japonicas, promotes antioxidative protection of the cardiovascular system. However, it is unknown whether OP-D exerts protective effects against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced autophagic cardiomyocyte injury. Here, we demonstrate that DOX induced excessive autophagy through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 cells and in mouse hearts, which was indicated by a significant increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and upregulation of the expression of GFP-LC3. Pretreatment with OP-D partially attenuated the above phenomena, similar to the effects of treatment with 3-methyladenine. In addition, OP-D treatment significantly relieved the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential by antioxidative effects through downregulating the expression of both phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The ability of OP-D to reduce the generation of ROS due to mitochondrial damage and, consequently, to inhibit autophagic activity partially accounts for its protective effects in the hearts against DOX-induced toxicity. Ophiopogonin-D suppresses MDA-MB-435 cell adhesion and invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3541 Mol Med Rep. 2015 Jul;12(1):1493-8. Ophiopogonin-D is one of steroidal saponins isolated from the root of the Chinese medicinal plant Ophiopogon japonicas. It has been claimed to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study was the first to examine the anti-tumor metastasis properties of ophiopogonin-D. An MTT assay showed that ophiopogonin-D inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-435 melanoma cells, and decreased invasion was demonstrated using a Transwell invasion assay. Furthermore, adhesion of MDA-MB-435 cells to human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and to fibronectin was inhibited by ophiopogonin-D. Gelatin zymography and western blot analysis showed that ophiopogonin-D inhibited the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), but not that of MMP-2. Inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 by ophiopogonin-D indicated its inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Overall, the results suggested that ophiopogonin-D may be considered as a candidate drug for treating or preventing tumor metastasis. Effects of ophiopogonin D and spicatoside A derived from Liriope Tuber on secretion and production of mucin from airway epithelial cells. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.08.013 Phytomedicine. 2014 Jan 15;21(2):172-6. In the present study, we investigated whether aqueous extract of Liriope Tuber, ophiopogonin D and spicatoside A derived from Liriope Tuber affect basal or phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA)-induced airway mucin production and secretion from airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were treated with each agent for 24 h (basal production) or pretreated with each agent for 30 min and then stimulated with PMA for 24 h (PMA-induced production and secretion), respectively. MUC5AC airway mucin production and secretion were measured by ELISA. The results were as follows: (1) aqueous extract of Liriope Tuber stimulated basal mucin production and did not inhibit but increased PMA-induced mucin production; (2) ophiopogonin D and spicatoside A stimulated basal mucin production and did not inhibit but increased PMA-induced mucin production; (3) two compounds increased PMA-induced mucin secretion. These results suggest that ophiopogonin D and spicatoside A can increase mucin production and secretion, by directly acting on airway epithelial cells and, at least in part, explain the traditional use of aqueous extract of Liriope Tuber as expectorants in diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Ophiopogonin D inhibits cell proliferation, causes cell cycle arrest at G2/M, and induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60238-8 J Integr Med. 2016 Jan;14(1):51-9. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of ophiopogonin D on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.METHODS:Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation experiments. Cell cycle was measured with cell cycle flow cytometry and a living cell assay. Apoptosis and terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays were performed to detect the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells induced by ophiopogonin D. Finally, Western blotting was used to explore the mechanism.RESULTS:Exposure of cells to ophiopogonin D resulted in marked decreases in viable cells and colony formation with a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of these cells with ophiopogonin D also resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase, and increased apoptosis. Mechanistically, ophiopogonin D-induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest was associated with down-regulation of cyclin B1. Furthermore, activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 was involved in ophiopogonin D-induced apoptosis.CONCLUSION:The data suggested that ophiopogonin D inhibits MCF-7 cell growth via the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase. Ophiopogonin D prevents H2O2-induced injury in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.031 J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 24;128(2):438-45. AIM OF THE STUDY:Vessel endothelium injury caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H(2)O(2) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, drug targeting ROS elimination
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Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are investigated as augmenting therapy to combat bacterial infections. The strong antibacterial effects of plasmas are attributed to the complex mixture of reactive species, (V)UV radiation and electric fields. The experience with antibiotics is that upon their introduction as medicines, resistance occurs in pathogens and spreads. To assess the possibility of bacterial resistance developing against plasma, we investigated intrinsic protective mechanisms that allow Escherichia coli to survive plasma stress. We performed a genome-wide screening of single-gene knockout mutants of E. coli and identified 87 mutants that are hypersensitive to the effluent of a microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet. For selected genes (cysB, mntH, rep and iscS) we showed in complementation studies that plasma resistance can be restored and increased above wild-type levels upon over-expression. To identify plasma-derived components that the 87 genes confer resistance against, mutants were tested for hypersensitivity against individual stressors (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, ozone, HOCl, peroxynitrite, NO•, nitrite, nitrate, HNO3, acid stress, diamide, heat stress and detergents). k-means++ clustering revealed that most genes protect from hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and/or nitric oxide. In conclusion, individual bacterial genes confer resistance against plasma providing insights into the antibacterial mechanisms of plasma.
disinfection, atmospheric pressure plasma, iron-sulfur cluster, antibacterial mechanism, stress response, non-thermal plasma
Plasma-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants reveal plasma resistance mechanisms
Marco Krewing,1 Fabian Jarzina,1 Tim Dirks,1 Britta Schubert,1 Jan Benedikt,2 Jan-Wilm Lackmann,1,† and Julia E. Bandow1