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The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on the activity of two microtubule motor complexes, kinesin-2 and dynein-2/1b, but the specific functions of the different subunits are poorly defined. Here we analyze Chlamydomonas strains expressing different amounts of the dynein 1b light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Disruption of D1bLIC alters the stability of the dynein 1b complex and reduces both the frequency and velocity of retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), but it does not eliminate retrograde IFT. Flagellar assembly, motility, gliding, and mating are altered in a dose-dependent manner. iTRAQ-based proteomics identifies a small subset of proteins that are significantly reduced or elevated in d1blic flagella. Transformation with D1bLIC-GFP rescues the mutant phenotypes, and D1bLIC-GFP assembles into the dynein 1b complex at wild-type levels. D1bLIC-GFP is transported with anterograde IFT particles to the flagellar tip, dissociates into smaller particles, and begins processive retrograde IFT in <2 s. These studies demonstrate the role of D1bLIC in facilitating the recycling of IFT subunits and other proteins, identify new components potentially involved in the regulation of IFT, flagellar assembly, and flagellar signaling, and provide insight into the role of D1bLIC and retrograde IFT in other organisms.
The role of the dynein light intermediate chain in retrograde IFT and flagellar function in Chlamydomonas
Jaimee Reck, Alexandria M. Schauer, Kristyn VanderWaal Mills, Raqual Bower, Douglas Tritschler, Catherine A. Perrone, Mary E. Porter
2016 Aug 1;
Acute hypertensive response is a common systemic response to occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage which has gained unique prominence due to high prevalence and association with hematoma expansion and increased mortality. Presumably, the higher systemic blood pressure predisposes to continued intraparenchymal hemorrhage by transmission of higher pressure to the damaged small arteries and may interact with hemostatic and inflammatory pathways. Therefore, intensive reduction of systolic blood pressure has been evaluated in several clinical trials as a strategy to reduce hematoma expansion and subsequent death and disability. These trials have demonstrated either a small magnitude benefit (second intensive blood pressure reduction in acute cerebral hemorrhage trial and efficacy of nitric oxide in stroke trial) or no benefit (antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage 2 trial) with intensive systolic blood pressure reduction compared with modest or standard blood pressure reduction. The differences may be explained by the variation in intensity of systolic blood pressure reduction between trials. A treatment threshold of systolic blood pressure of ≥180 mm with the target goal of systolic blood pressure reduction to values between 130 and 150 mm Hg within 6 h of symptom onset may be best supported by current evidence.
Hypertensive response, intracerebral hemorrhage, systolic blood pressure, randomized clinical trials, hematoma expansion
Acute hypertensive response in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage pathophysiology and treatment
Adnan I Qureshi and Mushtaq H Qureshi
There is consistent evidence that obesity is a correlate of mortality. Less information is available about the relation between body weight and the prevalence of diseases. We investigated the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their relationship with 14 groups of chronic diseases in a Mediterranean population using data from the Italian National Survey collected in 1999-2000.
A sample of 52,300 families was randomly selected using a complex stratified multistage design, within strata of geographical areas, municipalities, and household sizes, to produce estimates representative of the whole Italian population. Data were collected by civil servants both with an interview and a self-reported questionnaire.
The present study documents an increase in the prevalence of overweight among Italian adults in the last decades and an increased prevalence of several chronic conditions in obese or overweight individuals. A general pattern of a positive association between excess weight and chronic disease was observed for both sexes. The ratio of the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases was higher in obese versus normal-weight individuals in the age group under 45 years.
To reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases a policy promoting a healthier individual lifestyle is becoming more and more desirable.
Obesity and prevalence of chronic diseases in the 1999-2000 Italian National Health Survey
Stefano Calza,1 Adriano Decarli,2 and Monica Ferraronicorresponding author3