4-[(E)-2-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]benzene-1,3-diol/Puag-haad/2,4,3',5'-Tetrahydroxystilbene/3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene/OXYLRESVERATROL/trans-oxyresveratrol/2,3',4,5'-Tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene/(E)-4-(3,5-Dihydroxystyryl)benzene-1,3-diol/Oxyresveratrol/1,3-Benzenediol, 4-(2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl)-, (E)-/2,3',4,5'-Tetrahydroxystilbene/4-[(E)-2-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-1,3-benzenediol/trans-2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene/4-[(E)-2-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)vinyl]benzene-1,3-diol/1,3-Benzenediol, 4-(2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl)-/1,3-Benzenediol, 4-[(E)-2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-
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To investigate the effect of crocin on the learning and memory acquisition of AD rats and its underlying mechanisms.
A total of 48 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, AD model group, resveratrol group, and crocin group, with 12 rats per group. AD model was established by injecting Aβ25-35 to the lateral ventricle of rats, and thereafter the rats were administrated with resveratrol (40 mg/kg), crocin (40 mg/kg), or PBS daily for 14 days. Y-maze test and sucrose preference test were used to detect the learning and memory acquisition of rats. Neuronal apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and Western blot for apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot tests were used to detect the expression of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in hippocampal CA1 region (Hippo) and prefrontal cortical neurons (PFC).
The learning and memory abilities of AD rats were significantly decreased, which was significantly rescued by resveratrol and crocin. The apoptotic cell number of Hippo and PFC neurons in AD model group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01), while resveratrol and crocin significantly decreased the apoptotic cell number in AD group (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the expression of Bcl2 in PFC and hippo of AD model group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), while those of Bax, Caspase3, GRP78, and CHOP were significantly increased (P<0.01). Resveratrol and crocin could significantly reverse the expression of these proteins in AD rats (P<0.05).
Crocin can improve the learning and memory ability of AD rats possibly by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuronal apoptosis.
Crocin Improves Cognitive Behavior in Rats with Alzheimer's Disease by Regulating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis
Ling Lin,corresponding author 1 Guoliang Liu, 2 and Lina Yang 1
Aging is a process characterized by accumulating degenerative damages, resulting in the death of an organism ultimately. The main goal of aging research is to develop therapies that delay age-related diseases in human. Since signaling pathways in aging of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), fruit flies and mice are evolutionarily conserved, compounds extending lifespan of them by intervening pathways of aging may be useful in treating age-related diseases in human. Natural products have special resource advantage and with few side effect. Recently, many compounds or extracts from natural products slowing aging and extending lifespan have been reported. Here we summarized these compounds or extracts and their mechanisms in increasing longevity of C. elegans or other species, and the prospect in developing anti-aging medicine from natural products.
Aging, Natural products, Anti-aging, Drug screening
Current Perspective in the Discovery of Anti-aging Agents from Natural Products
Ai-Jun Ding,1,2 Shan-Qing Zheng,1,2 Xiao-Bing Huang,1,2 Ti-Kun Xing,1,2 Gui-Sheng Wu,1,3 Hua-Ying Sun,1 Shu-Hua Qi,4 and Huai-Rong Luocorresponding author1,3,5
Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle.
oxyresveratrol supplementation, amelioration, high-fat diet, obesity, glucose homeostasis, lipid homeostasis
Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms
Hui Yuan Tan, Iris Mei Ying Tse, Edmund Tsze Shing Li, and Mingfu Wang*
Oxyresveratrol is neuroprotective and inhibits the apoptotic cell death in transient cerebral ischemia. It effectively scavenges H2O2, NO (IC50 = 45.3 μM), and the artificial free radical 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 28.9 μM) In vitro: 1)oxyresveratrol exhibited more than 50% inhibition at 100 μM on L-tyrosine oxidation by murine tyrosinase activity.2) oxyresveratrol showed an IC50 value of 52.7 μM on the enzyme activity. 3) oxyresveratrol works through reversible inhibition of tyrosinase activity rather than suppression of the expression and synthesis of the enzyme. In vivo: 1) Oxyresveratrol (10 or 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the brain infarct volume by approximately 54% and 63%, respectively, when compared to vehicle-treated MCAO rats.2) oxyresveratrol treatment diminished cytochrome c release and decreasedcaspase-3 activation in MCAO rats.