White crystalline powder
N-oxosophocarpine/sophocarpidine/(7aS,13aR,13bR,13cS)-2,3,6,7,7a,8,13,13a,13b,13c-Decahydro-1H,5H,10H-dipyrido[2,1-f:3',2',1'-ij][1,6]naphthyridin-10-one 4-oxide/Oxysophocarpine/1-oxy-13,14-didehydro-matridin-15-one/1H,5H,10H-Dipyrido[2,1-f:3',2',1'-ij][1,6]naphthyridin-10-one, 2,3,6,7,7a,8,13,13a,13b,13c-decahydro-, 4-oxide, (7aS,13aR,13bR,13cS)-/Matridin-15-one, 13,14-didehydro-, 1-oxide/(4R,7aS,13aR,13bR,13cS)-2,3,6,7,7a,8,13,13a,13b,13c-Decahydro-1H,5H,10H-dipyrido[2,1-f:3',2',1'-ij][1,6]naphthyridin-10-one 4-oxide/1H,5H,10H-Dipyrido[2,1-f:3',2',1'-ij][1,6]naphthyridin-10-one, 2,3,6,7,7a,8,13,13a,13b,13c-decahydro-, 4-oxide, (4R,7aS,13aR,13bR,13cS)-
Methanol; Acetone; Acetontrile; Water; DMSO
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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Oxysophocarpine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides. We investigated the analgesic effect of oxysophocarpine on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain in mice, in order to explore its possible mechanisms. Mouse ear swelling tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests were used to investigate the effects of oxysophocarpine on inflammatory pain in mice. Morphological changes on inflamed paw sections were measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The mRNA and protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 were investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In our results, oxysophocarpine shows a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the mouse ear swelling test. Oxysophocarpine also significantly reduced the paw edema volume and improved mechanical allodynia threshold value on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, as well as relieved paw tissues inflammatory damage and reduced the numbers of neutrophils in mice. Oxysophocarpine significantly suppressed over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2, and inhibited the over-phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Based on these findings we propose that oxysophocarpine attenuates inflammatory pain by suppressing the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Oxysophocarpine Ameliorates Carrageenan-induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Expressions of Prostaglandin E2 and Cytokines in Mice
Yang Yang 1 , Yu-Xiang Li 2 , Hong-Ling Wang 1 , Shao-Ju Jin 3 , Ru Zhou 1 , Hai-Qi Qiao 1 , Juan Du 1 , Jing Wu 4 , Cheng-Jun Zhao 5 , Yang Niu 6 , Tao Sun 7 , Jian-Qiang Yu 1
Background/aims: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an oncogene in various types of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Oxysophocarpine (OSC) is a natural alkaloid that has multiple pharmacological activities. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanism underlying the effects of OSC on the growth and metastasis of OSCC are unclear.
Methods: Nrf2 levels were determined in OSCC tissues and non-cancerous specimens by quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The effects of OSC on OSCC cell growth and metastasis were explored (1) using 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine staining and Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, flow cytometry, wound-healing, Transwell, and tube formation assays in vitro; and (2) by establishing a xenograft nude mouse model in vivo. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of OSC on the growth and metastasis of OSCC were investigated in vitro by western blotting, caspase-3 activity, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and in vivo by western blotting and IHC assays.
Results: The expression levels of Nrf2 in OSCC tissues and in cell lines were much higher than in non-cancerous tissues and normal oral keratinocytes. The upregulation of Nrf2 was positively correlated with a high incidence of lymph node metastasis and advanced histological grade and TNM stage, but inversely associated with differentiation and survival of OSCC patients. OSC reduced the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in OSCC cells. OSC also inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion, and pro-angiogenesis of OSCC cells. Moreover, OSC induced cell cycle arrest, enhanced apoptosis of OSCC cells in vitro, and decreased OSCC tumor growth in vivo. Mechanically, OSC reduced the aggressive behavior of OSCC cells by inactivation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that OSC inhibits the growth and metastasis of OSCC by targeting the Nrf2/ HO-1 axis, suggesting that OSC may be a potential therapeutic agent for OSCC.
Oxysophocarpine Retards the Growth and Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Targeting the Nrf2/HO-1 Axis
Rui Liu 1 2 3 4 , Jia Peng 5 , Huili Wang 6 , Lei Li 1 , Xiujie Wen 3 , Yan Tan 1 , Lin Zhang 3 , Haoyuan Wan 3 , Faming Chen 4 , Xie Nie 2 7
Epilepsy is one of the prevalent and major neurological disorders, and approximately one-third of the individuals with epilepsy experience seizures that do not respond well to available medications. We investigated whether oxysophocarpine (OSC) had anticonvulsant and neuroprotective property in the pilocarpine (PILO)-treated mice. Thirty minutes prior to the PILO injection, the mice were administrated with OSC (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) once. Seizures and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed, and then the mice were killed for Nissl and Fluoro-jade B (FJB) staining. The oxidative stress was measured at 24 h after convulsion. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expressions of the Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3. In this study, we found that pretreatment with OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) significantly delayed the onset of the first convulsion and status epilepticus (SE) and reduced the incidence of SE and mortality. Analysis of EEG recordings revealed that OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) significantly reduced epileptiform discharges. Furthermore, Nissl and FJB staining showed that OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) attenuated the neuronal cell loss and degeneration in hippocampus. In addition, OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) attenuated the changes in the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and strengthened glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis showed that OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) significantly decreased the expressions of Bax, Caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Collectively, the findings of this study indicated that OSC exerted anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on PILO-treated mice. The beneficial effects should encourage further studies to investigate OSC as an adjuvant in epilepsy, both to prevent seizures and to protect neurons in brain.
Anticonvulsant; Convulsion; Neuronal damage; Neuroprotection; Oxysophocarpine; Pilocarpine.
The Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of Oxysophocarpine on Pilocarpine-Induced Convulsions in Adult Male Mice
Gang Liu 1 , Jing Wang 1 , Xian-Hua Deng 1 , Peng-Sheng Ma 1 , Feng-Mei Li 1 , Xiao-Dong Peng 1 , Yang Niu 2 , Tao Sun 3 , Yu-Xiang Li 4 , Jian-Qiang Yu 5 6