Benzene, 1-methyl-4- (1-methylethyl)-/Benzene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-/p-methyl cumene/p-Isopropyltoluene (p-Cymene)/para-cymene/4-methyl-1-(propan-2-yl)benzene/1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)benzene/p-methyl-Cumene/Cymene, p-/1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene/4-methyl isopropylbenzene/1-Isopropyl-4-methylbenzene/p-isopropyltoluene/4-Isopropyltoluene/1-isopropyl-4-methyl-Benzene/Cymene/p-methylcumene/Cumene, p-methyl-/p-Mentha-1,3,5-triene/4-cymen
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture on urinary retention and provide treatment suggestions.
A total of 113 hospitalized patients with urinary retention were included in this study. The GV20, CV6, CV4, CV3, ST28, SP6, and SP9 points were selected as the main acupoints. Acupuncture therapy was conducted for 30 minutes per session. The total number of treatment sessions was determined by the symptoms and the length of hospital stay. Bladder postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) was measured pretreatment and posttreatment by ultrasonic. Efficacy defined as spontaneous urination and a residual urine volume <50 mL was measured. RESULTS: The median number of acupuncture treatment sessions was 3 (range, 1-12 times). Acupuncture treatment significantly reduced the PVR (545.1 ± 23.9 mL vs 67.4 ± 10.7 mL; p < 0.001). Among the 113 patients, 99 (87.6%) patients were cured and 8 (7.1%) patients were improved of their urinary retention. The remaining 6 (5.3%) patients' urinary retention did not improve. The effective rate was 94.7%. There was significant difference in the efficacy rate between patients with one urinary catheterization and with two or more. Acupuncture treatment was not associated with side effects. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture is an effective and safe treatment option for urinary retention. Early application of acupuncture treatment should be considered in clinic, and repeated urinary catheter insertion and removal should be avoided. Our study suggests that a randomized controlled study with a large sample size to verify the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of urinary retention is warranted. Copyright © 2020 Suhui Chen et al.
Effects of Acupuncture on Hospitalized Patients with Urinary Retention.
Chen S1, Sun H1, Xu H1, Zhang Y1, Wang H1.
2020 Jan 19
Terpenes, volatile plant secondary compounds produced by woody plants, have historically been thought to act as feeding deterrents for mammalian herbivores. However, three species of woodrats, Neotoma stephensi, N. lepida, and N. albigula, regularly consume juniper, which is high in terpenes, and N. stephensi and N. lepida are considered juniper specialists. By investigating the terpene profiles in Juniperus monosperma and J. osteosperma, which are browsed or avoided by woodrats in the field, and recording the caching and consumption of juniper foliage by woodrats in the lab, we have evidence that terpenes may serve as feeding and/or foraging cues. The obligate specialist N. stephensi chose to forage on trees higher in p-cymene and preferred to consume juniper rather than caching it in a laboratory setting. These observations provide evidence that terpenes serve as a feeding cue and that the obligate specialist’s physiological mechanism for metabolizing the terpenes present in juniper may negate the need for caching. The facultative specialist N. lepida chose to forage on trees lower in four terpenes and cached more juniper than the obligate specialist N. stephensi, providing evidence that terpenes serve as a feeding deterrent for N. lepida and that this woodrat species relies on behavioral mechanisms to minimize terpene intake. The generalist N. albigula foraged on trees with higher terpenes levels but consumed the least amount of juniper in the lab and preferred to cache juniper rather than consume it, evidence that terpenes act as foraging but not feeding cues in the generalist. Our findings suggest that volatile plant secondary compounds can act as feeding and/or foraging cues and not just feeding deterrents in mammalian herbivores.
Dietary specialization; Herbivory; Neotoma; Plant-mammal interactions; Terpenes
Terpenes May Serve as Feeding Deterrents and Foraging Cues for Mammalian Herbivores.
Skopec MM1, Adams RP2, Muir JP3.
The antimicrobial properties of natural limonene and the compounds obtained after isomerization of limonene (α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, and p-cymene) were studied. The following microorganisms were selected for the tests: Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli K12 (ACCT 25922), Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (ACCT 49461), yeast fungi Candida albicans, and fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, Trichoderma viride, and Cladosporium cladosporioides. During the studies, terpinolene showed the highest activity, and therefore, this compound was chosen for the preparation of therapeutic creams (content of terpinolene: 0.5 and 2 wt%). The obtained creams were active in the microbiological tests even at the lowest content of terpinolene. The mixture of products obtained after the isomerization of limonene also showed antimicrobial activity. Probably, in the future, this mixture of products can be used as a potential and relatively inexpensive ingredient in therapeutic and protective creams that can be applied for the relief of skin lesions and in the treatment of acne or atopic dermatitis.
Microbiological Tests of Natural Limonene and the Compounds Obtained after Isomerization of Limonene in the Presence of Ti-SBA-15 Catalyst-α-Terpinene, γ-Terpinene, Terpinolene, and p-Cymene.
Wroblewska A1, Retajczyk M1, Kadziołka D1, Markowska-Szczupak A1.