This product is isolated and purified from the leaves of Linaria vulgaris Mill
Flavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-4',6-dimethoxy-/4'-Methylcapillarisin/5,7-Dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one/6-Hydroxypelargidenon-6,4'-dimethyl Ether/6-Methoxyacacetin/5,7-dihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavone/5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)chromen-4-one/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-/pictolinarigenin/scutellarein-6,4'-dimethyl ether/Pectolinarigenin/Pectolinaringenin/5,7-Dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one/5,7-dihydroxy-4',6-dimethoxyflavone
Methanol; DMSO; DMF
565.5±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:520-12-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance (MNR) mutations including Q151M, K65R mutations, and insertion at codon 69 of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase coding region may confer resistance to all molecules of nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). The presence of these mutations is an emerging problem compromising non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors-based therapies. Furthermore, factors associated with selection of these mutations are still not well defined. The current study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to characterize factors associated with the occurrence of multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance mutations among HIV-1 infected patients failing recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in Cambodia.
This is a retrospective analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping of 520 HIV-1 infected patients in virological failure (viral load > 250 copies/mL) while on first-line antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia with at least one reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance associated mutation. Among these 520 patients, a total of 66 subjects (66/520, 12.7%) presented ≥ 1 MNR mutation, including Q151M, K65R, and Insert69 for 59 (11.3%), 29 (5.6%), and 2 (0.4%) patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both Q151M (p = 0.039) and K65R (p = 0.029) mutations were independently associated with current stavudine- compared to zidovudine-use.
Such selection of mutations by stavudine drastically limits the choice of antiretroviral molecules available for second-line therapy in resource-limited settings. This finding supports the World Health Organization’s recommendation for stavudine phase-out.
Increased risk of Q151M and K65R mutations in patients failing stavudine-containing first-line antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia.
Nouhin J1, Madec Y, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Ferradini L, Nerrienet E.
2013 Aug 28
[Chemical constituents of Cirsium Japonicum D. C].
Gu Y1, Tu Y.
Six countries (Denmark, England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy and The Netherlands) conducted large serological surveys for mumps, in the mid-1990s, as part of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN). The assay results were standardized and related to the schedules and coverage of the immunization programmes and the reported incidence of mumps. Low incidence of disease and few susceptibles amongst adolescents and young adults was observed in countries with high mumps vaccine coverage (e.g. The Netherlands). High disease incidence and large proportions of mumps virus antibody negative samples in adolescent and young adult age groups was noted in countries with poor vaccine coverage (e.g. Italy). The build-up of susceptibles in older children and adolescents in England and Wales, France, the former West Germany and Italy indicate the possibility of further mumps outbreaks in secondary school environments. To control mumps in western Europe, current MMR immunization programmes will need to be strengthened in a number of countries. Sero-surveillance of mumps is an important component of disease control and its usefulness will be enhanced by the development of an international mumps standard.
Sero-epidemiology of mumps in western Europe.
A. Nardone, R. G. Pebody, S. van den Hof, D. Levy-Bruhl, A. M. Plesner, M. C. Rota, A. Tischer, N. Andrews, G. Berbers, P. Crovari, W. J. Edmunds, G. Gabutti, P. Saliou, and E. Miller
Pectolinarin and Pectolinarigenin of Cirsium setidens Prevent the Hepatic Injury in Rats Caused by D-Galactosamine via an Antioxidant Mechanism.[Pubmed: 18379079]Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Apr;31(4):760-4. To identify the hepatoprotective component from the leaves of Cirsium setidens (Compositae), the methanolic extract was divided into two fractions, chloroform and butanol fractions, and their hepatoprotective efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of hepatic injury caused by D-galactosamine (GalN). METHODS AND RESULTS: Hepatoprotective activity was measured by the activity of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Glutathione metabolism was measured via biochemical parameters such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. We subjected the butanol fraction, which had higher activity, to column chromatography to yield pectolinarin, which was further hydrolyzed to yield Pectolinarigenin. Administration (10, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) of the main flavonoid glycoside component, pectolinarin, and its aglycone, Pectolinarigenin, for 2 weeks significantly decreased the activity levels of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH, indicating that the two compounds have hepatoprotective activity. Pectolinarin and Pectolinarigenin also increased activity levels of GSH, GR, GCS, and GST, as well as SOD. The significant effect was only seen in SOD activity. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that the two components exhibit hepatoprotective activity mainly via SOD antioxidant mechanism.