White crystalline powder
Ilex cornuta,Ilex rotunda,Ilex chinensis
760.1±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:42719-32-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Objectives: The discovery of alternative and well-tolerated anti-arthritic drugs, especially from natural products, is becoming an area of active research. Pedunculoside (PE) is a novel triterpene saponin extracted from the dried bark of Ilex rotunda Thunb. Limited published papers have reported its pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-myocardial ischaemia, anti-liver injury, and hypocholesterolaemic activities. However, the effect of PE on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains unknown. Here, we investigated the anti-arthritic effect of PE in both in vitro and in vivo models. Method: The inhibitory effects of PE on proliferation, migration, and production of inflammatory mediators in primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were examined by a 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, wound-healing assay, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Cellular signalling mechanisms were analysed by Western blot. The in vivo studies were performed using a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Multiple methods, including arthritis scoring, enzyme-linked immunoassay, radiography, and histopathological assessment, were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of PE on CIA rats. Results: The in vitro studies revealed that PE significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of FLSs. PE also decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Western blot results suggested that PE suppressed TNF-α-stimulated activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The in vivo studies showed that PE treatment significantly inhibited synovial inflammation and bone destruction in CIA rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that PE exerts an inhibitory role in FLSs and CIA rats, and therefore may have therapeutic value for the treatment of RA.
Pedunculoside Attenuates Pathological Phenotypes of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes and Protects Against Collagen-Induced Arthritis
X Ma 1 , G Chen 1 , J Wang 1 , J Xu 2 , F Zhao 1 , M Hu 1 , Z Xu 1 , B Yang 1 , J Guo 1 , S Sun 1 , M Liu 1
Pedunculoside (PE) is a novel triterpene saponin extracted from the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. The present study aims to explore lipid-lowering effects of PE on hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet. The rats were fed with the high-fat diet and subjected to intragastric administration of PE at doses of 30, 15, or 5 mg/kg daily for 7 weeks. The results demonstrated that treatment with PE for 7-week dramatically decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduced liver TC in hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet. Furthermore, the results also showed that PE modulated the expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) mRNA in liver. Besides, PE-treated group decreased weights and diameters of epididymal adipose hyperlipidemia rat. Mechanism study demonstrated that PE regulated PPAR-γ, CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein α (C/EBPα)、and SREBP-1 expression as well as inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK in MDI (methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, insulin) induced-3T3L1 cells. Molecular Docking confirmed interaction between PE with proteins involving PPAR-γ, C/EBPα and SREBP-1. In summary, these findings may support that PE is a novel lipid-lowering drug candidate.
Pedunculoside, a Novel Triterpene Saponin Extracted From Ilex Rotunda, Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats
Chang Liu 1 , Yan-Jun Shen 2 , Qing-Bo Tu 3 , Yan-Ran Zhao 3 , Hao Guo 4 , Juan Wang 5 , Li Zhang 6 , Hua-Wei Shi 2 , Yun Sun 7
Ilex rotunda is widely used to treat many disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) containing 4%-5% pedunculoside (PDC). A rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to determine PDC in rat plasma by using 3β,19α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (DEOG) as an internal standard. The analytes were extracted by protein precipitation and eluted on a C18 chromatography column using a mobile phase of methanol-H2O (70:30, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was performed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring modes. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.60 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL, with a quantification limit of 0.60 ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (%RSD) ranged from 2.12 to 9.51 for PDC, whereas the accuracy was within -7.83%~9.40%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of PDC in rat plasma after oral administration of pure PDC and Ilex rotunda extract (IRE). Pharmacokinetic parameters of PDC in IRE, such as Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, t1/2z, and CLz/F, statistically differed from those of the pure monomer (p < 0.01). However, Tmax and MRT showed no significant differences between the two groups. Results suggested that other coexisting components in IRE may decrease the absorption of PDC. Compound-compound interactions between PDC and other herbal extract components can alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of PDC. The study will be helpful in providing references for understanding the action mechanism and clinical application of Ilex rotunda.
Ilex rotunda; LC-MS/MS; pedunculoside; pharmacokinetics.
LC-MS/MS Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Pedunculoside in Rat Plasma After Oral Administration of Pedunculoside and Ilex Rotunda Extract
Waiou Zhao 1 , Li Pang 2 , Dahai Xu 3 , Nan Zhang 4
2015 May 19
Hypolipidemic Activity of Pedunculoside, A Constituent of Ilex doniana. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1076/phbi.22.214.171.12414 Pharm. Biol.,1999, 37(1):37- 41. Pedunculoside, an ester glucoside of 19a, 23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, was isolated from the leaves of Ilex doniana DC. On dietary administration to hyperlipidemic albino rats, it showed significant hypocholesterolemic activity. Inhibitory activity of chemical constituents from Arenaria serpyllifolia on nitric oxide production. PUMID/DOI：23670630 Planta Med. 2013 May;79(8):687-92. Five new compounds, including one new xanthone, 1-hydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), one new lignan, 3-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(3-acetoxypropyl)-7-methoxy-(2R,3S)-dihydrobenzofuran (2), and three new γ-pyrones, japonicumone A 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), japonicumone B 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and japonicumone B 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), together with eight known compounds (6-13) were isolated from the whole plants of Arenaria serpyllifolia. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, HRESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and CD) as well as chemical methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1-5, sacranoside A (9), and pedunculoside (13) showed potential nitric oxide inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 14.92 μM to 52.23 μM.