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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:55916-52-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., has a distinguishable phenotype within the genus Brassica. Despite the economic and genetic importance of cabbage, there is little genomic data for cabbage, and most studies of Brassica are focused on other species or other B. oleracea subspecies. The lack of genomic data for cabbage, a non-model organism, hinders research on its molecular biology. Hence, the construction of reliable transcriptomic data based on high-throughput sequencing technologies is needed to enhance our understanding of cabbage and provide genomic information for future work.
We constructed cDNAs from total RNA isolated from the roots, leaves, flowers, seedlings, and calcium-limited seedling tissues of two cabbage genotypes: 102043 and 107140. We sequenced a total of six different samples using the Illumina HiSeq platform, producing 40.5 Gbp of sequence data comprising 401,454,986 short reads. We assembled 205,046 transcripts (≥ 200 bp) using the Velvet and Oases assembler and predicted 53,562 loci from the transcripts. We annotated 35,274 of the loci with 55,916 plant peptides in the Phytozome database. The average length of the annotated loci was 1,419 bp. We confirmed the reliability of the sequencing assembly using reverse-transcriptase PCR to identify tissue-specific gene candidates among the annotated loci.
Our study provides valuable transcriptome sequence data for B. oleracea var. capitata L., offering a new resource for studying B. oleracea and closely related species. Our transcriptomic sequences will enhance the quality of gene annotation and functional analysis of the cabbage genome and serve as a material basis for future genomic research on cabbage. The sequencing data from this study can be used to develop molecular markers and to identify the extreme differences among the phenotypes of different species in the genus Brassica.
High-Throughput Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. for Transcriptome Analysis
Hyun A. Kim,# 1 , 4 Chan Ju Lim,# 1 Sangmi Kim, 2 Jun Kyoung Choe, 2 Sung-Hwan Jo, 2 Namkwon Baek, 3 and Suk-Yoon Kwon 1 , 4 , *Yong-Hwan Lee, Editor
The descriptive taxonomic study reported here is focused on Glyptapanteles, a species-rich genus of hymenopteran parasitoid wasps. The species were found within the framework of two independent long-term Neotropical caterpillar rearing projects: northwestern Costa Rica (area de Conservacion Guanacaste, ACG) and eastern Andes, Ecuador (centered on Yanayacu Biological Station, YBS). One hundred thirty-six new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead are described and all of them are authored by Arias-Penna. None of them was recorded in both countries; thus, 78 are from Costa Rica and the remaining 58 from Ecuador. Before this revision, the number of Neotropical described Glyptapanteles did not reach double digits. Reasonable boundaries among species were generated by integrating three datasets: Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene sequencing data, natural history (host records), and external morphological characters. Each species description is accompanied by images and known geographical distribution. Characteristics such as shape, ornamentation, and location of spun Glyptapanteles cocoons were imaged as well. Host-parasitoid associations and food plants are also here published for the first time. A total of 88 species within 84 genera in 15 Lepidoptera families was encountered as hosts in the field. With respect to food plants, these wild-caught parasitized caterpillars were reared on leaves of 147 species within 118 genera in 60 families. The majority of Glyptapanteles species appeared to be relatively specialized on one family of Lepidoptera or even on some much lower level of taxonomic refinement. Those herbivores in turn are highly food-plant specialized, and once caterpillars were collected, early instars (1-3) yielded more parasitoids than later instars. Glyptapanteles jimmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov. is the first egg-larval parasitoid recorded within the genus, though there may be many more since such natural history requires a more focused collection of eggs. The rate of hyperparasitoidism within the genus was approximately 4% and was represented by Mesochorus spp. (Ichneumonidae). A single case of multiparasitoidism was reported, Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Encyrtidae) and Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. both parasitoid species emerged from the caterpillar of Noctuidae: Condica cupienta (Cramer). Bodyguard behavior was observed in two Glyptapanteles species: G. howelldalyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. and G. paulhansoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov. A dichotomous key for all the new species is provided. The numerous species described here, and an equal number already reared but not formally described, signal a far greater Glyptapanteles species richness in the Neotropics than suggested by the few described previously.
Central America, diversity, mtDNA, natural history, parasitoid wasps, South America
A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador
Diana Carolina Arias-Penna,corresponding author1 James B. Whitfield,1 Daniel H. Janzen,2 Winifred Hallwachs,3 Lee A. Dyer,4 M. Alex Smith,5 Paul D.N. Hebert,6 and Jose L. Fernandez-Triana7
The title ibuprofen-containing Mannich derivative, C26H32N6O3S, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The morpholine ring in each molecule adopts a chair conformation. The 1,2,4-triazole ring forms dihedral angles of 2.13 (10) and 75.52 (10)° with the two substituted benzene rings in one molecule, with corresponding values of 19.36 (11)° and 89.03 (10)° in the other. The nitro groups are twisted from the attached benzene ring in each molecule. In the crystal packing, molecules are linked into supramolecular chains via weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯S interactions, and C—H⋯π and N—O⋯π links also occur.
Hoong-Kun Fun,a,* Suchada Chantrapromma,b,‡ K. V. Sujith,c and B. Kallurayac
2009 Mar 1;