This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Prunus armeniaca L.
2'-O-GLUCOSYL-4',6',4-TRIHYDROXYDIHYDROCHALCONE/phloridzin from apple wood/Phloretin 2'-b-D-glucopyranoside/3,5-Dihydroxy-2-[3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside dihydrate/1-Propanone, 1-[2-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4,6-dihydroxyphenyl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, hydrate (1:2)/PHLORIDZIN/PHLORIDZIN(RG)
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:7061-54-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Plasmids containing the ebgAo and ebgAa genes of Escherichia coli under the control of the lac repressor and promoter have been constructed and inserted into Salmonella typhimurium CH3. This system expresses the large subunit of the ebgo and ebga beta-galactosidase in high yield (20-60% of total protein). The large subunits have been purified to homogeneity. As isolated they are tetramers of significant catalytic activity; the N-terminal amino acid residue is Met, but it is not formylated. The kcat. values for a series of aryl galactosides were 6-200-fold reduced from the corresponding values for the holoenzymes. kcat/Km Values for glycosides of acidic aglycones, though, were unchanged, whilst kcat./Km values for galactosides of less acidic aglycones showed a modest (up to 10-fold) decrease. The kcat. values for glycosides of acidic aglycones hydrolysed by ebgo and ebga large subunits were essentially invariant with aglycone pK, suggesting that hydrolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme intermediate had become rate-determining for these substrates. Rate-determining hydrolysis of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate was confirmed by pre-steady-state measurements and nucleophilic competition with methanol. Absence of the small subunit was thus estimated to cause a 200-fold decrease in degalactosylation rate for ebgo and a 20-fold one for ebga. beta 1g(V/K) values of -0.57 +/- 0.08 for ebgo and -0.54 +/- 0.08 for ebga isolated subunits were significantly more negative than for holoenzymes. It is suggested that the small subunit is associated with the optimal positioning of the electrophilic Mg2+ ions in these enzymes. Use of PCR in the construction of the plasmid also inadvertently led to the production of psi ebgo large subunit in which there was a PCR-introduced Leu9–>His change. Values of kcat. for aryl galactosides, calculated on the assumption that the psi ebgo large subunit, like the ebgo and ebga large subunits, was 100% active as isolated, were about an order of magnitude lower than for true ebgo large subunit, whilst Km values were similar. The very significant kinetic effect of this inadvertant site-undirected mutagenesis indicates that quite large kinetic effects of amino-acid replacements in enzymes may have no obvious mechanistic significance.
Catalysis by the large subunit of the second beta-galactosidase of Escherichia coli in the absence of the small subunit.
S V Calugaru, B G Hall, and M L Sinnott
1995 Nov 15
Circular plasmids containing telomeric TG1-3 arrays or the HMR E silencer segregate efficiently between dividing cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subtelomeric X repeats augment the TG1-3 partitioning activity by a process that requires the SIR2, SIR3, and SIR4 genes, which are also required for silencer-based partitioning. Here we show that targeting Sir4p to DNA directly via fusion to the bacterial repressor LexA confers efficient mitotic segregation to otherwise unstable plasmids. The Sir4p partitioning activity resides within a 300-amino-acid region (residues 950 to 1262) which precedes the coiled-coil dimerization motif at the extreme carboxy end of the protein. Using a topology-based assay, we demonstrate that the partitioning domain also retards the axial rotation of LexA operators in vivo. The anchoring and partitioning properties of LexA-Sir4p chimeras persist despite the loss of the endogenous SIR genes, indicating that these functions are intrinsic to Sir4p and not to a complex of Sir factors. In contrast, inactivation of the Sir4p-interacting protein Rap1p reduces partitioning by a LexA-Sir4p fusion. The data are consistent with a model in which the partitioning and anchoring domain of Sir4p (PAD4 domain) attaches to a nuclear component that divides symmetrically between cells at mitosis; DNA linked to Sir4p by LexA serves as a reporter of protein movement in these experiments. We infer that the segregation behavior of telomere- and silencer-based plasmids is, in part, a consequence of these Sir4p-mediated interactions. The assays presented herein illustrate two novel approaches to monitor the intracellular dynamics of nuclear proteins.
The yeast silent information regulator Sir4p anchors and partitions plasmids.
A Ansari and M R Gartenberg
The question of whether, during the evolution of an enzyme, the transition state of the catalysed reaction is largely unchanged, or whether transition state and protein change together, was examined using the egb beta-galactosidases of Escherichia coli. Charge development at the first chemical state was assumed [Konstantinidis and Sinnott (1991) Biochem. J. 279, 587-593] to be proportional to delta delta G++, the ratio of second-order rate constants for the hydrolysis of beta-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride and 1-fluoro-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, expressed as a free-energy difference. delta delta G++ (kJ.mol-1) falls from 10.4 for wild-type enzyme to 6.8 and 7.2 as a consequence of two different single amino-acid changes (which arise from single evolutionary events), to 6.3 as a consequence of the two amino-acid changes together, and then increases slightly to 7.3 as a consequence of a third single evolutionary change involving three further amino-acid changes.
Large changes of transition-state structure during experimental evolution of an enzyme.
K Srinivasan, A Konstantinidis, M L Sinnott, and B G Hall
1993 Apr 1