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Reduced telomere length (TL) and structural brain abnormalities have been reported in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Childhood traumatic events are more frequent in SZ and BD than in healthy individuals (HC), and based on recent findings in healthy individuals could represent one important factor for TL and brain aberrations in patients. The study comprised 1024 individuals (SZ [n = 373]; BD [n = 249] and HC [n = 402]). TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Diagnosis was obtained by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV (DSM-IV). FreeSurfer was used to obtain regional and global brain volumes from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans. All analyses were adjusted for current age and sex. Patients had on average shorter TL (F = 7.87, p = 0.005, Cohen’s d = 0.17) and reported more childhood trauma experiences than HC (χ2 = 148.9, p < 0.001). Patients with a history of childhood sexual, physical or emotional abuse had shorter TL relative to HC and to patients without a history of childhood abuse (F = 6.93, p = 0.006, Cohen’s d = 0.16). After adjusting for childhood abuse, no difference in TL was observed between patients and HC (p = 0.12). There was no statistically significant difference in reported childhood abuse exposure or TL between SZ and BD. Our analyses revealed no significant associations between TL and clinical characteristics or brain morphometry. We demonstrate shorter TL in SZ and BD compared with HC and showed that TL is sensitive to childhood trauma experiences. Further studies are needed to identify the biological mechanisms of this relationship.
Telomere length is associated with childhood trauma in patients with severe mental disorders
Monica Aas,corresponding author#1 Torbjørn Elvsashagen,#1,2 Lars T. Westlye,1,3 Tobias Kaufmann,1 Lavinia Athanasiu,1 Srdjan Djurovic,4,5 Ingrid Melle,1 Dennis van der Meer,1 Carmen Martin-Ruiz,6 Nils Eiel Steen,1 Ingrid Agartz,1,7,8 and Ole A. Andreassen1
1. Simultaneous determination of the rate of appearance of 3H in water from [(1R)-1-3H1] ethanol and the rate of acetaldehyde formation in the presence of rat or ox liver catalase under conditions of steady-state generation of H2O2 allowed calculation of the 3H isotope effect. The mean value of 2.52 obtained for rat liver catalase at 37 degrees C and pH 6.3-7.7 was independent of both ethanol concentration and the rate of H2O2 generation over a wide range. At 25 degrees C a slightly lower mean value of 2.40 was obtained with the ox liver catalase. 2. Neither the product, acetaldehyde, nor 4-methylpyrazole influenced the two rates measured in the assay. 3. Relating the value obtained for the 3H isotope effect to a known value for the 2H isotope effect strongly supports the view that both values are close to the true isotope effect with the respective substituted compounds on the rate constant in the catalytic step involving scission of the C-H bond. 4. The constancy of the isotope effect under various conditions makes it possible to use it for interpretations in vivo. 5. It was established that beta-D-galactose dehydrogenase exhibits B-specificity towards the nicotinamide ring in NAD.
Tritium effect in peroxidation of ehtanol by liver catalase.
S E Damgaard
1977 Oct 1;
Drought stress is a major abiotic factor that affects rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) productivity. Though previous studies indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a key role in response to drought stress, a scheme for genome-wide identification and characterization of lncRNAs’ response to drought stress is still lacking, especially in the case of B. napus. In order to further understand the molecular mechanism of the response of B. napus to drought stress, we compared changes in the transcriptome between Q2 (a drought-tolerant genotype) and Qinyou8 (a drought-sensitive genotype) responding drought stress and rehydration treatment at the seedling stage.
A total of 5546 down-regulated and 6997 up-regulated mRNAs were detected in Q2 compared with 7824 and 10,251 in Qinyou8, respectively; 369 down-regulated and 108 up- regulated lncRNAs were detected in Q2 compared with 449 and 257 in Qinyou8, respectively. LncRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis indicated that the co-expression network of Q2 was composed of 145 network nodes and 5175 connections, while the co-expression network of Qinyou8 was composed of 305 network nodes and 22,327 connections. We further identified 34 transcription factors (TFs) corresponding to 126 differentially expressed lncRNAs in Q2, and 45 TFs corresponding to 359 differentially expressed lncRNAs in Qinyou8. Differential expression analysis of lncRNAs indicated that up- and down-regulated mRNAs co-expressed with lncRNAs participated in different metabolic pathways and were involved in different regulatory mechanisms in the two genotypes. Notably, some lncRNAs were co-expressed with BnaC07g44670D, which are associated with plant hormone signal transduction. Additionally, some mRNAs co-located with XLOC_052298, XLOC_094954 and XLOC_012868 were mainly categorized as signal transport and defense/stress response.
The results of this study increased our understanding of expression characterization of rapeseed lncRNAs in response to drought stress and re-watering, which would be useful to provide a reference for the further study of the function and action mechanisms of lncRNAs under drought stress and re-watering.
RNA-seq, Rehydration treatments, mRNA, GO and pathway analyses, Co-expression network
Genome-wide analysis of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in two contrasting rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) genotypes subjected to drought stress and re-watering
Xiaoyu Tan,1,2 Su Li,1 Liyong Hu,2 and Chunlei Zhangcorresponding author1