Anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities of polygalasaponins from Polygala tenuifolia in mice. PUMID/DOI：20645780 Pharm Biol. 2010 Jul;48(7):801-7. In the present study, the anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities of polygalasaponins extracted from Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow (Polygalaceae) were determined in mice using hole-board, elevated plus maze, open field, and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis tests. Moreover, the acute toxicity of polygalasaponins was also estimated in mice. Sixty minutes after p.o. administration of polygalasaponins (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) in mice, the central crossing counts and percentage of central/total ambulation significantly increased and the number of rearings and defecations was evidently inhibited in the open field test. Polygalasaponins also increased the head-dips of mice in the hole-board test and the time spent by mice in the open arms of the X-maze, prolonged sleep duration and shortened sleep latency in the test of synergetic effect on sodium pentobarbital (45 and 25 mg/kg, respectively). Acute toxic study showed the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) of polygalasaponins was 3.95 g/kg and 0% lethal dose 2.6 g/kg. These results suggest that polygalasaponin possesses evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities and has a relatively safe dose range, which supports the use of Polygala tenuifolia root as an anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic drug in folk medicine.
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The workload of US radiologists has increased over the past two decades as measured through total annual relative value units (RVUs). This increase in RVUs generated suggests that radiologists’ productivity has increased. However, true productivity (output unit per input unit; RVU per time) is at large unknown since actual time required to interpret and report a case is rarely recorded. In this study, we analyzed how the time to read a case varies between radiologists over a set of different procedure types by retrospectively extracting reading times from PACS usage logs. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses that; i) relative variation in time to read per procedure type increases as the median time to read a procedure type increases, and ii) relative rankings in terms of median reading speed for individual radiologists are consistent across different procedure types. The results that, i) a correlation of -0.25 between the coefficient of variation and median time to read and ii) that only 12 out of 46 radiologists had consistent rankings in terms of time to read across different procedure types, show both hypotheses to be without support. The results show that workload distribution will not follow any general rule for a radiologist across all procedures or a general rule for a specific procedure across many readers. Rather the findings suggest that improved overall practice efficiency can be achieved only by taking into account radiologists’ individual productivity per procedure type when distributing unread cases.
PACS, Radiology workflow, Efficiency, Productivity
Radiologists’ Variation of Time to Read Across Different Procedure Types
Daniel Forsberg,corresponding author1,2 Beverly Rosipko,2 and Jeffrey L. Sunshine2
Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2. We also examined the production of spiroimine toxins by the Dutch A. ostenfeldii strains. An extensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed a high intraspecific variability of spirolides (SPX) and gymnodimines (GYM). Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Besides spirolides, the presence of gymnodimine A and 12-Methyl-gymnodimine A was confirmed, together with two new gymnodimines. One of these was tentatively identified as an analogue of gymnodimine D and was the most abundant gymnodimine (calculated cell quota up to 274 pg cell−1, expressed as GYM A equivalents). Our multi-clonal approach adds new analogues to the increasing number of compounds in these toxin classes and revealed a high strain variability in cell quota and in toxin profile of toxic compounds within a single population.
Alexandrium ostenfeldii, PSP-toxins, spiroimines, spirolides, gymnodimines, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Toxin Variability Estimations of 68 Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) Strains from The Netherlands Reveal a Novel Abundant Gymnodimine
Helge Martens,1 Urban Tillmann,1 Kirsi Harju,2 Carmela Dell’Aversano,3 Luciana Tartaglione,3 and Bernd Krock1,*
Arthonia coreana, Arthonia superpallens, and Arthonia zelkovae are new species from South Korea. All new species are in the Euarthonia tribe, based on the key characteristics of colorless hypothecium and multi-cellular spores. A. coreana has a dull brownish hypophloedal thallus without bleaching and rounded or curved big apothecia in comparison with those of Arthonia punctiformis. A. coreana consistently exhibits 4-septate ascospores, which is a distinctive characteristic that distinguishes it from other Arthonia species. A. superpallens has a white-greenish thallus, pale yellowish apothecia, and a trentepohlioid alga. However, A. superpallens has no distinct prothallus, adnate, and convex apothecia, no pycnidia, and is UV-, in contrast with related species in the Arthonia antillarum group. A. zelkovae has a white, epiphloedal thallus, brownish-black epruinose apothecia covered with a whitish bark layer, and smaller ascospores in comparison with those of A. punctiformis. A. zelkovae consists of a chlorococcoid alga, which differs from related Arthonia species such as A. punctiformis, Arthonia pinastri, and Arthonia glaucella. Although A. zelkovae is similar to Arthonia dispersa in its white-colored thallus, blackish apothecia, and the presence of a chlorococcoid photobiont, A. zelkovae differs from the latter in having larger-sized 3-septate ascospores. Arthonia cinnabarina f. marginata, A. glaucella, Arthonia ilicinella, Arthonia lapidicola, Arthonia leioplacella, Arthonia pertabescens, A. pinastri, Arthonia spadicea, and Arthonia stellaris are newly described in Korea. The diagnostic characteristics of these species are discussed and presented. An artificial key is provided to facilitate identification of Arthonia species from Northeast Asia.
Arthonia, Corticolous, New species, South Korea
Three New Species and Nine New Records in the Genus Arthonia from South Korea
Beeyoung Gun Lee and Jae-Seoun Hurcorresponding author