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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:36191-03-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Biosynthetic processes related to the stimulation by insulin of sodium transport in the toad bladder.
The descriptive taxonomic study reported here is focused on Glyptapanteles, a species-rich genus of hymenopteran parasitoid wasps. The species were found within the framework of two independent long-term Neotropical caterpillar rearing projects: northwestern Costa Rica (area de Conservacion Guanacaste, ACG) and eastern Andes, Ecuador (centered on Yanayacu Biological Station, YBS). One hundred thirty-six new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead are described and all of them are authored by Arias-Penna. None of them was recorded in both countries; thus, 78 are from Costa Rica and the remaining 58 from Ecuador. Before this revision, the number of Neotropical described Glyptapanteles did not reach double digits. Reasonable boundaries among species were generated by integrating three datasets: Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene sequencing data, natural history (host records), and external morphological characters. Each species description is accompanied by images and known geographical distribution. Characteristics such as shape, ornamentation, and location of spun Glyptapanteles cocoons were imaged as well. Host-parasitoid associations and food plants are also here published for the first time. A total of 88 species within 84 genera in 15 Lepidoptera families was encountered as hosts in the field. With respect to food plants, these wild-caught parasitized caterpillars were reared on leaves of 147 species within 118 genera in 60 families. The majority of Glyptapanteles species appeared to be relatively specialized on one family of Lepidoptera or even on some much lower level of taxonomic refinement. Those herbivores in turn are highly food-plant specialized, and once caterpillars were collected, early instars (1-3) yielded more parasitoids than later instars. Glyptapanteles jimmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov. is the first egg-larval parasitoid recorded within the genus, though there may be many more since such natural history requires a more focused collection of eggs. The rate of hyperparasitoidism within the genus was approximately 4% and was represented by Mesochorus spp. (Ichneumonidae). A single case of multiparasitoidism was reported, Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Encyrtidae) and Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. both parasitoid species emerged from the caterpillar of Noctuidae: Condica cupienta (Cramer). Bodyguard behavior was observed in two Glyptapanteles species: G. howelldalyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. and G. paulhansoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov. A dichotomous key for all the new species is provided. The numerous species described here, and an equal number already reared but not formally described, signal a far greater Glyptapanteles species richness in the Neotropics than suggested by the few described previously.
Central America, diversity, mtDNA, natural history, parasitoid wasps, South America
A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador
Diana Carolina Arias-Penna,corresponding author1 James B. Whitfield,1 Daniel H. Janzen,2 Winifred Hallwachs,3 Lee A. Dyer,4 M. Alex Smith,5 Paul D.N. Hebert,6 and Jose L. Fernandez-Triana7
The genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae) of Madagascar is revised in two parts. This review is restricted to the Copelatus species that have fewer than ten elytral + one submarginal stria, including all species except those of the erichsonii species group. Both morphological and molecular (mitochondrial COI) data are used in an integrative taxonomic approach. Thirteen species are recognised, of which five are described as new: Copelatus ankaratrasp. nov., Copelatus kelysp. nov., Copelatus pseudostriatussp. nov., Copelatus safiotrasp. nov. and Copelatus vokokasp. nov.Copelatus unguicularis Regimbart, 1903 and Copelatus apicalis Fairmaire, 1898 are both transferred to the genus Madaglymbus Shaverdo & Balke, 2008 (comb. nov.). Copelatus mimetesGuignot 1957 is a junior synonym of the widespread Afrotropical-Arabian Copelatus pulchellus (Klug, 1834) (syn. nov.). Copelatus marginipennis (Laporte, 1835) is reinstated (stat. nov.) as a valid species with Copelatus aldabricus Balfour-Browne, 1950 and Copelatus aldabricus var. simplex Guignot, 1952 as junior synonyms (syn. nov.). We designate lectotypes for Colymbetes marginipennis Laporte, 1835 and Copelatus obtusus Boheman, 1848. Copelatus peridinus Guignot, 1955 is recorded for Madagascar for the first time and Copelatus nodieri Regimbart, 1895 is rejected as a species present in Madagascar.
Conservation, distribution, diving beetles, freshwater, gene tree, GMYC, new combination, new species, new synonymy, phylogeny, species delimitation
Taxonomic revision of the genus Copelatus of Madagascar (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae): the non- erichsonii group species
Tolotra Ranarilalatiana,corresponding author1 Lala Harivelo Raveloson Ravaomanarivo,1 and Johannes Bergsten2