Ligusticum sinense cv. chuanxiong,Notopterygium incisum,Aucklandia costus,Bupleurum sibiricum,Sinularia gyrosa
DMSO : 12.5 mg/mL (39.50 mM; Need ultrasonic)
H2O : < 0.1 mg/mL (insoluble)
443.3±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:145-13-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Background: Higher levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), and impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may cause or exacerbate the occurrence of metabolic and psychiatric disorders. It has been reported that ginseng saponin extract (GSE) has an inhibitory effect on the hyperactivity of the HPA axis induced by stresses and increased corticosterone level induced by intraperitoneal injection of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GSE and its active ginsenosides inhibit corticosterone secretion remain elusive.
Main methods: Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells were treated with ACTH for up to 60 min to establish a cell model of corticosterone secretion. After treatment with different concentrations of GSE or ginsenoside monomers for 24 h prior to the addition of ACTH, analyses of cAMP content, PKA activity, and the levels of steroidogenesis regulators, melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) in ACTH-induced Y1 cells were performed.
Results: We demonstrated that GSE inhibits ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production in Y1 cells by inhibiting factors critical for steroid synthesis. Ginsenoside Rd, an active ingredient of GSE, inhibits corticosterone secretion in the cells and impedes ACTH-induced corticosterone biosynthesis through down-regulation of proteins in the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. In addition, Western blot and qPCR analyses showed that ginsenoside Rd attenuated the induction of MC2R and MRAP by ACTH.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ginsenoside Rd inhibits ACTH-induced corticosterone production through blockading the MC2R-cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in adrenocortical cells. Overall, this mechanism may represent an important therapeutic option for the treatment of stress-related disorders, further supporting the pharmacological benefits of ginseng.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); Corticosterone secretion; Ginsenoside Rd; Melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R); cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling.
Ginsenoside Rd attenuates ACTH-induced corticosterone secretion by blocking the MC2R-cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells
Wenqi Jin 1, Rui Ma 1, Lu Zhai 1, Xiaohao Xu 1, Tingting Lou 1, Qingxia Huang 1, Jing Wang 1, Daqing Zhao 2, Xiangyan Li 3, Liwei Sun 4
2020 Mar 15
We report here that pregnenolonyl-α-glucoside (2), a steryl glycoside synthesized directly from pregnenolone and glucose via a consecutive multienzyme-catalyzed process, exhibits marked dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against HT29, AGS, and ES-2 cells with IC50 values of 23.5 to 50.9 μM. An in vitro CYP17A1 binding pattern assay and protein-ligand docking model support that 2, like abiraterone, binds in the active site heme iron pocket of CYP17A1.
Pregnenolonyl-α-glucoside exhibits marked anti-cancer and CYP17A1 enzymatic inhibitory activities
Feng-Pai Chou 1, Wen-Chen Hsu, Sheng-Cih Huang, Chin-Yuan Chang, Ya-Sheng Chiou, Chia-Tse Tsai, Jason WenJay Lyu, Wei-Ting Chen, Tung-Kung Wu
2020 Feb 6
The metabolomics of urinary steroids was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 25 patients with Cushing’s syndrome without malignant potential and in 12 patients with malignant potential of adrenal neoplasms (Weiss score 1-3). Patients with adrenocortical adenoma (N=24) constituted the control group. In patients with Cushing’s syndrome and malignant potential, increased urinary excretion of 16-oxo-androstendiol, tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol, and 16-hydroxypregnendiol, which had 100% specificity and sensitivity >90% for the diagnosis of malignant potential. Additionally, non-classical 5-ene-pregnenes (16-OHpregnenolone, 21-OH-pregnenolone, 3β,16,20-pregnentriol, and 3β,17,20-pregnentriol) were identified. The revealed changes in the metabolomics of steroids can be early signs of malignant potential in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. In patients with malignant potential, three signs of reduced activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 were detected and in patients without malignant potential, one sign was found. In patients with and without malignant potential, three signs increased activity of 5β-reductase were found.
Cushing’s syndrome; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; malignant potential; steroid profile in urine.
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Urinary Steroid Metabolomics for Detection of Early Signs of Adrenal Neoplasm Malignancy in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome
L I Velikanova 1, Z R Shafigullina 2, N V Vorokhobina 2, E V Malevanaya 2
Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as precursors of native 7-hydroxylated metabolites which increase the immune response in mice. PUMID/DOI：8049138 J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994 Jul;50(1-2):91-100. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Pregnenolone (PREG) were both metabolized by homogenates of brain, spleen, thymus, perianal skin, ventral skin, intestine, colon, coecum and muscle tissues from mice. The use of 2H-labeled substrates and of the twin ion technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry permitted identification of 7 alpha-hydroxy-DHEA and of 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol as DHEA metabolites in digests of all tissues. The extent of PREG metabolism was much lower than for DHEA with all tissues but amounts of the main transformation product were sufficient in brain, spleen and ventral skin digests for identification with 7 alpha-hydroxy-PREG. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions of DHEA, PREG and of their 7-hydroxylated metabolites were injected at different doses and time intervals prior to proximal subcutaneous administration of a lysozyme antigen. Quantities of anti-lysozyme IgG were measured in the serum of treated mice and compared with that from sham-treated animals. Increase of anti-lysozyme IgG was obtained with DHEA and PREG (1 g/kg) when injected 2 h prior to lysozyme. Much lower doses (160 times less) of 7 alpha-hydroxy-DHEA and -PREG were also found to be significantly active when administered at the moment of lysozyme injection. A larger dose of 7 beta-hydroxy-DHEA (50 mg/kg) was necessary for a similar effect. These results suggest that in tissues where immune response takes place, the locally-produced 7-hydroxy metabolites of PREG and DHEA are involved in a process which may participate in the physiological regulation of the body's immune response.