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The risk of visual impairment increases dramatically with age and therefore older adults should have their eyes examined at least every 1 to 2 years. Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to determine the frequency that older people had their eyes examined. We also examined factors associated with having a recent eye exam.
The World Health Surveys were conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2002-2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Participants 60 years and older from 52 countries (n = 35,839) were asked “When was the last time you had your eyes examined by a medical professional?”. The income status of countries was estimated using gross national income per capita data from 2003 from the World Bank website. Prevalence estimates were adjusted to account for the complex sample design.
Overall, only 18% (95% CI 17, 19) of older adults had an eye exam in the last year. The rate of an eye exam in the last year in low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries was 10%, 24%, 22%, and 37% respectively. Factors associated with having an eye exam in the last year included older age, female gender, more education, urban residence, greater wealth, worse self-reported health, having diabetes, and wearing glasses or contact lenses (p < 0.05). Conclusions Given that older adults often suffer from age-related but treatable conditions, they should be seen on a regular basis to prevent visual impairment and its disabling consequences.
Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries
Claudia Vela,1 Elodie Samson,1 Maria Victoria Zunzunegui,2 Slim Haddad,2 Marie-Josee Aubin,3 and Ellen E Freemancorresponding author1,3
Classical forward genetics has been foundational to modern biology, and has been the paradigm for characterizing the role of genes in shaping phenotypes for decades. In recent years, reverse genetics has been used to identify the functions of genes, via the intentional introduction of variation and subsequent evaluation in physiological, molecular, and even population contexts. These approaches are complementary and whole genome analysis serves as a bridge between the two. We report in this article the whole genome sequencing of eighteen classical mutant strains of Neurospora crassa and the putative identification of the mutations associated with corresponding mutant phenotypes. Although some strains carry multiple unique nonsynonymous, nonsense, or frameshift mutations, the combined power of limiting the scope of the search based on genetic markers and of using a comparative analysis among the eighteen genomes provides strong support for the association between mutation and phenotype. For ten of the mutants, the mutant phenotype is recapitulated in classical or gene deletion mutants in Neurospora or other filamentous fungi. From thirteen to 137 nonsense mutations are present in each strain and indel sizes are shown to be highly skewed in gene coding sequence. Significant additional genetic variation was found in the eighteen mutant strains, and this variability defines multiple alleles of many genes. These alleles may be useful in further genetic and molecular analysis of known and yet-to-be-discovered functions and they invite new interpretations of molecular and genetic interactions in classical mutant strains.
single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, indel, comparative genomics, classical mutant
Rediscovery by Whole Genome Sequencing: Classical Mutations and Genome Polymorphisms in Neurospora crassa
Kevin McCluskey,*,1 Aric E. Wiest,* Igor V. Grigoriev,† Anna Lipzen,† Joel Martin,† Wendy Schackwitz,† and Scott E. Baker†‡,1
The disease burden of influenza in China has not been well described, especially among young children. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of outpatient visits associated with influenza in young children in Suzhou, a city of more than 11 million residents in Jiangsu Province in eastern China.
Influenza-like illness (ILI) was defined as the presence of fever (axillary temperature ≥38 °C) and cough or sore throat. We collected throat swabs for children less than 5 years of age with ILI who visited Suzhou University Affiliated Children’s Hospital (SCH) outpatient clinic or emergency room between April 2011 and March 2014. Suzhou CDC, a national influenza surveillance network laboratory, tested for influenza viruses by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (rRT-PCR). Influenza-associated ILI was defined as ILI with laboratory-confirmed influenza by rRT-PCR. To calculate the incidence of influenza-associated outpatient visits, we conducted community-based healthcare utilization surveys to determine the proportion of hospital catchment area residents who sought care at SCH.
The estimated incidence of influenza-associated ILI outpatient visits among children aged <5 years in the catchment area of Suzhou was, per 100 population, 17.4 (95 % CI 11.0-25.3) during April 2011-March 2012, 14.6 (95 % CI 5.2-26.2) during April 2012-March 2013 and 21.4 (95 % CI: 10.9-33.5) during April 2013-March 2014. The age-specific outpatient visit rates of influenza-associated ILI were 4.9, 21.1 and 21.2 per 100 children aged 0- <6 months, 6- <24 months and 24- <60 months, respectively. Conclusion Influenza virus infection causes a substantial burden of outpatient visits among young children in Suzhou, China. Targeted influenza prevention and control strategies for young children in Suzhou are needed to reduce influenza-associated outpatient visits in this age group.
Influenza, Outpatient visit, Influenza-like illness, Children, China
Influenza-associated outpatient visits among children less than 5 years of age in eastern China, 2011-2014
Tao Zhang,# Jun Zhang,# Jun Hua,# Dan Wang,# Liling Chen, Yunfang Ding, Shanshan Zeng, Jing Wu, Yanwei Jiang, Qian Geng, Suizan Zhou, Ying Song, A. Danielle Iuliano, Carolyn M. Greene, Jeffrey McFarland, and Genming Zhaocorresponding author