Procyanidol C1/(2R,3R,4S)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-[(2R,3R)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-8-yl]-8-[(2R,3R,4R)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-4-yl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-3,5,7-triol/Procyanidin C1
Procyanidin C1 is a natural polyphenol, causes DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis. Procyanidin C1 decreases the level of Bcl-2, but enhances BAX, caspase 3 and 9 expression in cancer cells.
Methanol; Ethanol; Water
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Natural products are one of the main sources for discovering new lead compounds. We previously reported that cinnamon extract has a promising effect in regulating lipid tissue volume and insulin sensitivity in vivo. However, its effective component and the underlying mechanism are not known. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of different components of cinnamon on regulating insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Functional assay revealed that, of the six major components of cinnamon extracts, the B-type procyanidin, procyanidin C1, improves the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (TG content: 1.10 ± 0.09 mM at a dosage of 25 μM vs 0.67 ± 0.02 mM in vehicle group, p < 0.001) and promotes insulin-induced glucose uptake (8.58 ± 1.43 at a dosage of 25 μM vs 3.05 ± 1.24 in vehicle group, p < 0.001). Mechanism studies further suggested that procyanidin C1 activates the AKT-eNOS pathway, thus up-regulating glucose uptake and enhancing insulin sensitivity in mature adipocytes. Taken together, our study identified B-type procyanidin C1, a component of cinnamon extract, that stimulates preadipocyte differentiation and acts as a potential insulin action enhancer through the AKT-eNOS pathway in mature adipocytes.
3T3-L1 adipocytes; B-type procyanidin; cinnamon extracts; glucose uptake; insulin sensitivity
Procyanidin C1, a Component of Cinnamon Extracts, Is a Potential Insulin Sensitizer That Targets Adipocytes.
Sun P1,2, Li K2, Wang T1, Ji J1, Wang Y2, Chen KX1,3, Jia Q3, Li YM3, Wang HY1.
2019 Aug 14
Natural sources are very promising materials for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with diverse pharmacological effects. In recent years, many researchers have focused on natural sources as a means to prevent neuronal cell death in neuropathological conditions. This study focused on identifying neuroprotective compounds and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Procyanidin C1 (PC-1) was isolated from grape seeds and assessed for biological effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. The results showed that PC-1 strongly prevented glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. Moreover, PC-1 was also found to prevent glutamate-induced chromatin condensation and reduce the number of annexin V-positive cells indicating apoptotic cell death. Procyanidin C1 possessed a strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and inhibited glutamate-induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation. Additionally, PC-1 mediated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 and increased the expression levels of heme oxygenase (HO-1). Inhibition of HO-1 by tin protoporphyrin, a synthetic inhibitor, reduced the protective effect of PC-1. Furthermore, PC-1 also blocked glutamate-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK. This study is the first experimental report to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of PC-1 against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. Therefore, our results suggest that PC-1, as a potent bioactive compound of grape seeds, can prevent neuronal cell death in neuropathological conditions.
MAPK; Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway; glutamate; neuroprotective effects; oxidative stress; procyanidin C1
Procyanidin C1 Activates the Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway to Prevent Glutamate-Induced Apoptotic HT22 Cell Death.
Song JH1, Lee HJ2, Kang KS3.
2019 Jan 2
Procyanidin C1 (PC1) is an epicatechin trimer found mainly in grapes that is reported to provide several health benefits. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these benefits. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms by which PC1 operates.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is identified as a cell surface receptor of PC1, with a Kd value of 2.8 µm. PC1 induces an inhibitory effect on growth, accompanied by dephosphorylation of the C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI17) and myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) proteins, followed by actin cytoskeleton remodeling in melanoma cells. These actions are mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation once PC1 is bound to 67LR.
It is demonstrated that PC1 elicits melanoma cell growth inhibition by activating the 67LR/PKA/PP2A/CPI17/MRLC pathway.
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Procyanidin C1; epicatechin; melanoma; sensing molecules; wine polyphenols
Procyanidin C1 Inhibits Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating 67-kDa Laminin Receptor Signaling.
Bae J1, Kumazoe M1, Murata K1, Fujimura Y1, Tachibana H1.