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Protodioscin

$78

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BF-P1012

  • Specification : 98%

  • CAS number : 55056-80-9

  • Formula : C51H84O22

  • Molecular Weight : 1049.2

  • PUBCHEM ID : 441891

  • Volume : 20mg

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Catalogue Number

BF-P1012

Analysis Method

HPLC,NMR,MS

Specification

98%

Storage

2-8°C

Molecular Weight

1049.2

Appearance

White crystalline powder

Botanical Source

Dioscorea nipponica,Asparagus officinalis,Smilax china

Structure Type

Others

Category

Standards;Natural Pytochemical;API

SMILES

CC1C2C(CC3C2(CCC4C3CC=C5C4(CCC(C5)OC6C(C(C(C(O6)CO)OC7C(C(C(C(O7)C)O)O)O)O)OC8C(C(C(C(O8)C)O)O)O)C)C)OC1(CCC(C)COC9C(C(C(C(O9)CO)O)O)O)O

Synonyms

Protodioscin/proto-dioscin/PROTODIOSCIN(P)/(3β,22R,25R)-26-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-en-3-yl 6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-[6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1->4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside/Saponin C/β-D-Glucopyranoside, (3β,22β,25R)-26-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-en-3-yl O-6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-O-[6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1->4)]-/SHENGMATING/PROTODIOSON

IUPAC Name

(2S,3R,4R,5R,6S)-2-[(2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[[(1S,2S,4S,6R,7S,8R,9S,12S,13R,16S)-6-hydroxy-7,9,13-trimethyl-6-[(3R)-3-methyl-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxybutyl]-5-oxapentacyclo[10.8.0.02,9.04,8.013,18]icos-18-en-16-yl]oxy]-5-[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-3-yl]oxy-6-methyloxane-3,4,5-triol

Density

1.5±0.1 g/cm3

Solubility

Methanol; Water

Flash Point

Boiling Point

Melting Point

InChl

InChl Key

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

2932990000

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:55056-80-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

PMID

29404225

Abstract

Ichniotherium tracks with a relatively short pedal digit V (digit length ratio V/IV < 0.6) form the majority of yet described Late Carboniferous to Early Permian diadectomorph tracks and can be related to a certain diadectid clade with corresponding phalangeal reduction that includes Diadectes and its close relatives. Here we document the variation of digit proportions and trackway parameters in 25 trackways (69 step cycles) from nine localities and seven further specimens with incomplete step cycles from the type locality of Ichniotherium cottae (Gottlob quarry) in order to find out whether this type of Ichniotherium tracks represents a homogeneous group or an assemblage of distinct morphotypes and includes variability indicative for evolutionary change in trackmaker locomotion. According to our results, the largest sample of tracks from three Lower Permian sites of the Thuringian Forest, commonly referred to I. cottae, is not homogeneous but shows a clear distinction in pace length, pace angulation, apparent trunk length and toe proportions between tracks from Bromacker quarry and those from the stratigraphically older sites Birkheide and Gottlob quarry. Three Late Carboniferous trackways of Ichniotherium with relatively short pedal digit V from Haine’s Farm, Ohio, and Alveley near Birmingham, United Kingdom, that have been referred to the ichnotaxa “Baropus hainesi,” “Megabaropus hainesi” and “Ichniotherium willsi,” respectively, share a marked outward rotation of foot imprints with respect to walking direction. Apart from this feature they are in many aspects similar to the Birkheide and Gottlob records of I. cottae. With the possible exception of the Maroon Formation (Early Permian, Colorado) sample, Early Permian Ichniotherium trackways with a relatively short pedal digit V fall into the morphological spectrum of the three well defined “Hainesi-Willsi,” “Birkheide-Gottlob” and “Bromacker” morphotypes. With their more obtuse pace angulations and higher body-size-normalized pace and stride lengths the Bromacker type tracks imply higher walking speeds of their trackmakers compared to all other Ichniotherium tracks. More generally, a trend towards higher locomotion capability from the last common ancestor of all Ichniotherium producers to the last common ancestor of all “Ichniotherium with relatively short pedal digit V” and from the latter to the trackmakers of the mid-Early Permian Bromacker type can be deduced—with the reservation that overall sample size is relatively small, making this scenario a preliminary assessment. Whether the presumed advancements represent a more general pattern within diadectomorphs remains open until the non-European Ichniotherium trackway record improves. Ichnotaxonomic implications are discussed.

KEYWORDS

Vertebrate tracks, Locomotion, Diadectomorpha, Carboniferous, Permian, Pace angulation, Step cycle, Ichnology, Multivariate statistics

Title

On the morphological variability of Ichniotherium tracks and evolution of locomotion in the sistergroup of amniotes

Author

Michael Buchwitzcorresponding author#1 and Sebastian Voigtcorresponding author#2

Publish date

2018 Jan 31

PMID

29912962

Abstract

Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions. In Stage 1, genome-wide discovery meta-analyses in ≈131K individuals across several ancestry groups yielded 3,514 SNVs (245 loci) with suggestive evidence of association (P < 1.0 x 10−5). In Stage 2, these SNVs were tested for independent external replication in ≈440K individuals across multiple ancestries. We identified and replicated (at Bonferroni correction threshold) five novel BP loci (380 SNVs in 21 genes) and 49 previously reported BP loci (2,159 SNVs in 109 genes) in European ancestry, and in multi-ancestry meta-analyses (P < 5.0 x 10−8). For African ancestry samples, we detected 18 potentially novel BP loci (P < 5.0 x 10−8) in Stage 1 that warrant further replication. Additionally, correlated meta-analysis identified eight novel BP loci (11 genes). Several genes in these loci (e.g., PINX1, GATA4, BLK, FTO and GABBR2) have been previously reported to be associated with alcohol consumption. These findings provide insights into the role of alcohol consumption in the genetic architecture of hypertension.

Title

Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries

Author

Mary F. Feitosa, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#1,* Aldi T. Kraja, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#1 Daniel I. Chasman, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,#2,3 Yun J. Sung, Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#4 Thomas W. Winkler, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#5 Ioanna Ntalla, Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing - review & editing,#6 Xiuqing Guo, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Supervision, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,7 Nora Franceschini, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,8 Ching-Yu Cheng, Funding acquisition, Supervision,9,10,11 Xueling Sim, Data curation, Formal analysis, Supervision,12 Dina Vojinovic, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,13 Jonathan Marten, Data curation,14 Solomon K. Musani, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Visualization,15 Changwei Li, Formal analysis,16 Amy R. Bentley, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Writing - review & editing,17 Michael R. Brown, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Software,18 Karen Schwander, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,4 Melissa A. Richard, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,19 Raymond Noordam, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,20 Hugues Aschard, Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing - review & editing,21,22 Traci M. Bartz, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,23 Lawrence F. Bielak, Data curation, Formal analysis, Software, Writing - review & editing,24 Rajkumar Dorajoo, Data curation, Formal analysis,25 Virginia Fisher, Formal analysis,26 Fernando P. Hartwig, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,27,28 Andrea R. V. R. Horimoto, Formal analysis, Investigation,29 Kurt K. Lohman, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,30 Alisa K. Manning, Writing - review & editing,31,32 Tuomo Rankinen, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,33 Albert V. Smith, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Validation,34,35 Salman M. Tajuddin, Data curation, Formal analysis,36 Mary K. Wojczynski, Data curation, Investigation, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,1 Maris Alver, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation,37 Mathilde Boissel, Data curation, Formal analysis,38 Qiuyin Cai, Data curation, Investigation, Validation,39 Archie Campbell, Data curation,40 Jin Fang Chai, Data curation, Formal analysis,12 Xu Chen, Formal analysis,41 Jasmin Divers, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,30 Chuan Gao, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,42 Anuj Goel, Formal analysis, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,43,44 Yanick Hagemeijer, Data curation, Investigation,45 Sarah E. Harris, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,46,47 Meian He, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Validation, Writing - review & editing,48 Fang-Chi Hsu, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,30 Anne U. Jackson, Formal analysis,49 Mika Kahonen, Investigation, Resources, Writing - review & editing,50,51 Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing,52 Pirjo Komulainen, Investigation, Project administration, Resources,53 Brigitte Kuhnel, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,54,55 Federica Laguzzi, Data curation, Formal analysis, Software, Validation, Writing - review & editing,56 Jian'an Luan, Formal analysis,57 Nana Matoba, Validation,58 Ilja M. Nolte, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,59 Sandosh Padmanabhan, Data curation,60 Muhammad Riaz, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,61,62 Rico Rueedi, Data curation, Formal analysis, Software,63,64 Antonietta Robino, Formal analysis,65 M. Abdullah Said, Data curation, Investigation,45 Robert A. Scott, Formal analysis,57 Tamar Sofer, Methodology, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,32,66 Alena Stancakova, Data curation, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,67 Fumihiko Takeuchi, Formal analysis,68 Bamidele O. Tayo, Data curation, Formal analysis, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,69 Peter J. van der Most, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,59 Tibor V. Varga, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,70 Veronique Vitart, Data curation,14 Yajuan Wang, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,71 Erin B. Ware, Data curation, Formal analysis, Project administration, Validation, Writing - review & editing,72 Helen R. Warren, Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation,6,73 Stefan Weiss, Formal analysis,74,75 Wanqing Wen, Formal analysis,39 Lisa R. Yanek, Data curation, Formal analysis, Project administration,76 Weihua Zhang, Formal analysis, Software,77,78 Jing Hua Zhao, Formal analysis,57 Saima Afaq, Formal analysis,77 Najaf Amin, Resources, Writing - review & editing,13 Marzyeh Amini, Resources, Writing - review & editing,59 Dan E. Arking, Data curation, Formal analysis,79 Tin Aung, Funding acquisition,9,10,11 Eric Boerwinkle, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Resources,80,81 Ingrid Borecki, Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing,1 Ulrich Broeckel, Writing - review & editing,82 Morris Brown, Funding acquisition, Investigation,6,73 Marco Brumat, Formal analysis,83 Gregory L. Burke, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration,84 Mickaël Canouil, Data curation, Formal analysis, Supervision,38 Aravinda Chakravarti, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,79 Sabanayagam Charumathi, Funding acquisition,9,10 Yii-Der Ida Chen, Data curation, Investigation, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,7 John M. Connell, Project administration, Resources,85 Adolfo Correa, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,15 Lisa de las Fuentes, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,4,86 Renee de Mutsert, Data curation, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,87 H. Janaka de Silva, Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation,88 Xuan Deng, Formal analysis,26 Jingzhong Ding, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,89 Qing Duan, Formal analysis,90 Charles B. Eaton, Investigation, Resources, Writing - review & editing,91 Georg Ehret, Data curation, Funding acquisition,92 Ruben N. Eppinga, Data curation, Investigation,45 Evangelos Evangelou, Data curation, Formal analysis,77,93 Jessica D. Faul, Data curation, Formal analysis, Project administration,72 Stephan B. Felix, Writing - review & editing,75,94 Nita G. Forouhi, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,57 Terrence Forrester, Investigation,95 Oscar H. Franco, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,13 Yechiel Friedlander, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,96 Ilaria Gandin, Formal analysis,83 He Gao, Formal analysis,77 Mohsen Ghanbari, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,13,97 Bruna Gigante, Resources, Writing - review & editing,56 C. Charles Gu, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,4 Dongfeng Gu, Data curation,98 Saskia P. Hagenaars, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,46,99 Goran Hallmans, Resources,100 Tamara B. Harris, Conceptualization, Data curation, Project administration,101 Jiang He, Data curation, Funding acquisition,102,103 Sami Heikkinen, Data curation, Formal analysis,67,104 Chew-Kiat Heng, Funding acquisition,105,106 Makoto Hirata, Validation,107 Barbara V. Howard, Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Project administration,108,109 M. Arfan Ikram, Data curation, Writing - review & editing,13,110,111 InterAct Consortium, Project administration, Validation,57 Ulrich John, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision,75,112 Tomohiro Katsuya, Data curation, Investigation, Resources,113,114 Chiea Chuen Khor, Resources,25,115 Tuomas O. Kilpelainen, Conceptualization, Data curation, Methodology, Writing - review & editing,116,117 Woon-Puay Koh, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,12,118 Jose E. Krieger, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration,29 Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Resources, Writing - review & editing,119 Michiaki Kubo, Validation,120 Johanna Kuusisto, Data curation, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,67 Timo A. Lakka, Writing - review & editing,53,104,121 Carl D. Langefeld, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,30 Claudia Langenberg, Funding acquisition,57 Lenore J. Launer, Resources, Writing - review & editing,101 Benjamin Lehne, Formal analysis,77 Cora E. Lewis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration,122 Yize Li, Formal analysis,4 Shiow Lin, Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing - review & editing,1 Jianjun Liu, Resources,12,25 Jingmin Liu, Formal analysis,123 Marie Loh, Formal analysis,77,124 Tin Louie, Formal analysis,125 Reedik Magi, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Supervision,37 Colin A. McKenzie, Writing - review & editing,95 Thomas Meitinger, Writing - review & editing,126,127 Andres Metspalu, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,37 Yuri Milaneschi, Data curation, Formal analysis,128 Lili Milani, Data curation, Investigation, Resources,37 Karen L. Mohlke, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Writing - review & editing,90 Yukihide Momozawa, Investigation,129 Mike A. Nalls, Data curation, Formal analysis, Supervision,130,131 Christopher P. Nelson, Data curation, Writing - review & editing,61,62 Nona Sotoodehnia, Writing - review & editing,132 Jill M. Norris, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,133 Jeff R. O'Connell, Methodology, Software,134,135 Nicholette D. Palmer, Project administration, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,136 Thomas Perls, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,137 Nancy L. Pedersen, Funding acquisition, Supervision,41 Annette Peters, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Resources, Writing - review & editing,55,138 Patricia A. Peyser, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,24 Neil Poulter, Writing - review & editing,139 Leslie J. Raffel, Resources,140 Olli T. Raitakari, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources,141,142 Kathryn Roll, Data curation, Project administration,7 Lynda M. Rose, Data curation, Formal analysis, Resources,2 Frits R. Rosendaal, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,87 Jerome I. Rotter, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,7 Carsten O. Schmidt, Investigation, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,143 Pamela J. Schreiner, Resources,144 Nicole Schupf, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,145 William R. Scott, Formal analysis,77,146 Peter S. Sever, Project administration, Resources,146 Yuan Shi, Data curation,9 Stephen Sidney, Resources,147 Mario Sims, Formal analysis,15 Colleen M. Sitlani, Methodology, Writing - review & editing,148 Jennifer A. Smith, Data curation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,24,72 Harold Snieder, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,59 John M. Starr, Funding acquisition, Resources, Writing - review & editing,46,149 Konstantin Strauch, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Writing - review & editing,150,151 Heather M. Stringham, Formal analysis,49 Nicholas Y. Q. Tan, Project administration,9 Hua Tang, Writing - review & editing,152 Kent D. Taylor, Investigation,7 Yik Ying Teo, Funding acquisition,12,25,153,154,155 Yih Chung Tham, Project administration,9 Stephen T. Turner, Writing - review & editing,156 Andre G. Uitterlinden, Data curation, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,13,157 Peter Vollenweider, Project administration, Resources,158 Melanie Waldenberger, Data curation, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,54,55 Lihua Wang, Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing - review & editing,1 Ya Xing Wang, Data curation, Resources,159,160 Wen Bin Wei, Data curation, Resources,160 Christine Williams, Data curation, Formal analysis,1 Jie Yao, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,7 Caizheng Yu, Formal analysis, Investigation,48 Jian-Min Yuan, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing - review & editing,161,162 Wei Zhao, Data curation, Formal analysis, Software, Writing - review & editing,24 Alan B. Zonderman, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,163 Diane M. Becker, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,76 Michael Boehnke, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources,49 Donald W. Bowden, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,136 John C. Chambers, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization,77,78,164,165,166 Ian J. Deary, Funding acquisition, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,46,99 Tõnu Esko, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,37,167 Martin Farrall, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,43,44 Paul W. Franks, Funding acquisition, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,70,168 Barry I. Freedman, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,169 Philippe Froguel, Investigation, Supervision,38,170 Paolo Gasparini, Resources,65,83 Christian Gieger, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,54,171 Jost Bruno Jonas, Data curation, Resources,159,172 Yoichiro Kamatani, Validation,58 Norihiro Kato, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Resources, Supervision,68 Jaspal S. Kooner, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization,78,146,165,166 Zoltan Kutalik, Formal analysis,64,173 Markku Laakso, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,67 Cathy C. Laurie, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,125 Karin Leander, Data curation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,56 Terho Lehtimaki, Writing - review & editing,174,175 Lifelines Cohort Study, Investigation, Resources,176 Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Project administration, Supervision,41 Albertine J. Oldehinkel, Resources,177 Brenda W. J. H. Penninx, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision,128 Ozren Polasek, Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision,178,179,180 David J. Porteous, Data curation,40 Rainer Rauramaa, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,53 Nilesh J. Samani, Funding acquisition, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,61,62 James Scott, Funding acquisition,146 Xiao-Ou Shu, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Resources, Writing - review & editing,39 Pim van der Harst, Investigation, Resources, Supervision,45,181 Lynne E. Wagenknecht, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,84 Nicholas J. Wareham, Funding acquisition,57 Hugh Watkins, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,43,44 David R. Weir, Investigation, Resources,72 Ananda R. Wickremasinghe, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,52 Tangchun Wu, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,48 Wei Zheng, Data curation, Resources,39 Claude Bouchard, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,33 Kaare Christensen, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,182 Michele K. Evans, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,36 Vilmundur Gudnason, Writing - review & editing,34,35 Bernardo L. Horta, Data curation,27 Sharon L. R. Kardia, Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Writing - review & editing,24 Yongmei Liu, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,183 Alexandre C. Pereira, Data curation, Investigation, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,29 Bruce M. Psaty, Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,184,185 Paul M. Ridker, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources,2,3 Rob M. van Dam, Funding acquisition,12,186 W. James Gauderman, Writing - review & editing,187 Xiaofeng Zhu, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Resources, Supervision,71 Dennis O. Mook-Kanamori, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing,87,188 Myriam Fornage, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,18,19 Charles N. Rotimi, Conceptualization, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,17 L. Adrienne Cupples, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,26,189 Tanika N. Kelly, Formal analysis, Supervision,102 Ervin R. Fox, Investigation, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,190 Caroline Hayward, Data curation,14 Cornelia M. van Duijn, Conceptualization, Data curation, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,13 E Shyong Tai, Funding acquisition, Supervision,12,118,186 Tien Yin Wong, Data curation,9,10,11 Charles Kooperberg, Data curation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,191 Walter Palmas, Investigation, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,192 Kenneth Rice, Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing - review & editing,125,‡ Alanna C. Morrison, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,18,‡ Paul Elliott, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,166,‡ Mark J. Caulfield, Project administration, Resources, Supervision,6,73,‡ Patricia B. Munroe, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,6,73,‡ Dabeeru C. Rao, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Writing - review & editing,4,‡ Michael A. Province, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1,‡ and Daniel Levy, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing189,193,‡*

Publish date

2018 Jun 18

PMID

32063726

Abstract

The present study represents an introduction to the revision of Pheidole Westwood, 1839 from Madagascar. Sixteen species groups are established, of which eleven are revised below, and illustrated identification keys to species groups and species of groups revised in this monograph are presented. Two species are raised to species level: Pheidole petax Forel, 1895 stat. nov., and P. scabrata Forel, 1895 stat. nov. We also redescribe worker castes and designate lectotypes for P. annemariae Forel, 1918, P. nemoralis Forel, 1892, P. petax Forel, 1895, P. ensifera Forel, 1897, P. longispinosa Forel, 1891, and P. scabrata Forel, 1895. The following 46 new species are described: Pheidole aelloeasp. nov., P. alasp. nov., P. andapasp. nov., P. ankeranasp. nov., P. avaratrasp. nov., P. bemarahaensissp. nov., P. bemarivoensissp. nov., P. binarasp. nov., P. boriborasp. nov., P. brevipilosasp. nov., P. curvistriatasp. nov., P. diakritossp. nov., P. ehazoarasp. nov., P. ferrugineasp. nov., P. fisakasp. nov., P. fitaratasp. nov., P. glabrasp. nov., P. goavanasp. nov., P. lamperossp. nov., P. longipilosasp. nov., P. luteasp. nov., P. madinikasp. nov., P. mahaboensissp. nov., P. maizinasp. nov., P. makaensissp. nov., P. makirovanasp. nov., P. manantenensissp. nov., P. mantadiasp. nov., P. marieannaesp. nov., P. masoalasp. nov., P. mavesatrasp. nov., P. miramilasp. nov., P. moramanaensissp. nov., P. navoatrensissp. nov., P. ocypodeasp. nov., P. parvioculasp. nov., P. podargeasp. nov., P. praegrandissp. nov., P. ranohirensissp. nov., P. rugocephalasp. nov., P. rugofitaratasp. nov., P. typhlossp. nov., P. vatovavensissp. nov., P. voasarasp. nov., P. vohemarensissp. nov., and P. zavamanirasp. nov. At present, there are 69 valid species and subspecies of Pheidole known from Madagascar, but this number is expected to increase significantly with upcoming taxonomic revisions of the species groups not revised in this study.

KEYWORDS

endemic species, Malagasy region, Myrmicinae , taxonomy

Title

Pheidole Westwood, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Madagascar - an introduction and a taxonomic revision of eleven species groups

Author

Sebastian Salatacorresponding author1 and Brian L. Fisher1

Publish date

2020 Jan 20.


Description :

Protodioscin, a major steroidal saponin in dioscoreae rhizome, has been shown to exhibit multiple biological actions, such as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-cancer, sexual effects and cardiovascular properties.