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The study objective was to examine the impact of race/ethnicity on associations between anthropometric measures and diabetes risk.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 136,112 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years participating in the Women’s Health Initiative without baseline cancer or diabetes were followed for 14.6 years. BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured in all participants, and a subset of 9,695 had assessment of whole-body fat mass, whole-body percent fat, trunk fat mass, and leg fat mass by DXA. Incident diabetes was assessed via self-report. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between anthropometrics and diabetes incidence.
During follow-up, 18,706 cases of incident diabetes were identified. BMI, WC, and WHR were all positively associated with diabetes risk in each racial and ethnic group. WC had the strongest association with risk of diabetes across all racial and ethnic groups. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, associations with WC were weaker in black women (P < 0.0001) and stronger in Asian women (P < 0.0001). Among women with DXA determinations, black women had a weaker association with whole-body fat (P = 0.02) but a stronger association with trunk-to-leg fat ratio (P = 0.03) compared with white women. CONCLUSIONS In postmenopausal women across all racial/ethnic groups, WC was a better predictor of diabetes risk, especially for Asian women. Better anthropometric measures that reflect trunk-to-leg fat ratio may improve diabetes risk assessment for black women.
Racial and Ethnic Differences in Anthropometric Measures as Risk Factors for Diabetes
Juhua Luo,1 Michael Hendryx,2 Deepika Laddu,3 Lawrence S. Phillips,4,5 Rowan Chlebowski,6 Erin S. LeBlanc,7 David B. Allison,1 Dorothy A. Nelson,8 Yueyao Li,1 Milagros C. Rosal,9 Marcia L. Stefanick,10 and JoAnn E. Manson11
Firearm-related injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality in the United States (US), consuming resources and fueling political and public health discourse. Most analyses of firearm injuries are based on fatality statistics. Here, we describe the epidemiology of firearm injuries presenting to US emergency departments (EDs).
We performed a retrospective study of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Program Nationwide Emergency Department Survey (NEDS) from 2009 to 2012. NEDS is the largest all-payer ED survey in the US containing approximately 30 million annual records. Results include survey-adjusted counts, proportions, means, and rates, and confidence intervals of age-stratified ED discharges for firearm injuries.
There were 71,111 (se = 613) ED discharges for firearm injuries in 2009; the absolute number increased 3.9% (se = 1.2) to 75,559 (se = 610) in 2012. 18-to-44-year-olds accounted for the largest proportion of total injuries with 52,187 (se = 527) in 2009 and 56,644 (se = 528) in 2012—a 7.2% (se = 1.6) relative rate increase and an absolute increase of 3.3/100,000 (se = 0.7). Firearm injuries among children < 5-years-old increase 16%, and 19% among children 5-to-9-years-old. 136,112 (se = 761)—or 48.2%—of those injured were treated and discharged home without admission; 106,927 (se = 755) were admitted. Firearm deaths represented one-third of all trauma mortality. Three-quarters of those injured resided in neighborhoods with median incomes below $49,250. Conclusions Firearm injuries increased from 2009 to 2012, driven by adults aged 18-to-44-years-old, and disproportionately impacting lower socioeconomic communities. Injuries also increased among young children. Firearm injuries remain a continued public health challenge, and a significant source of ED morbidity and mortality.
The epidemiology of firearm injuries managed in US emergency departments
Jacob B. Avraham,1 Spiros G. Frangos,1 and Charles J. DiMaggiocorresponding author1,2
Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported.
Material and methods
This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan.
When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%). When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances.
When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.
Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred
Sheng-I Chen, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing* Jen-Hsiang Chuang, Editor