Anti-osteoporotic activity of puerarin 6"-O-xyloside on ovariectomized mice and its potential mechanism. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1017885 Pharm Biol. 2016;54(1):111-7. CONTEXT:Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases, and radix of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi possesses an obvious therapeutical effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis.OBJECTIVE:This study investigates the anti-osteoporotic activity of the puerarin 6"-O-xyloside (PXY) on ovariectomized mice and its related mechanism.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Osteoporotic mice model was established by ovariectomy (OVX). A total of 50 mice were divided into five groups (n = 10): sham, OVX group, PXY treatment groups (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/d, i.p.). After 12 weeks' treatment, body weights were recorded. Then, mice were sacrificed, and serum samples were collected to determine the blood calcium, blood phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations and uterine index was assayed. The thigh-bones of mice were collected to evaluate histopathological changes. In the in vitro experiment, the effect of PXY on osteoblasts' proliferation was evaluated and western blotting was performed to determine expressions of OPG and the receptor activators of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), as well as the ratio of OPG/RANKL.RESULTS:PXY (40 and 60 mg/kg/d, i.p.) obviously decreased body weights and increased uterine index of OVX (p < 0.05), and improved osteoporotic syndromes of OVX mice; PXY also significantly increased the concentrations of blood calcium, blood phosphorus, ALP, and OPG of OVX mice (p < 0.05); moreover, PXY obviously up-regulated the ratio of OPG/RANKL (p < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrated that the puerarin 6"-O-xyloside possesses significant anti-osteoporotic activity on ovariectomy mice. In vitro and in vivo antitumour activities of puerarin 6?-O-xyloside on human lung carcinoma A549 cell line via the induction of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1127980 Pharm Biol. 2016 Sep;54(9):1793-9. Context Pueraria lobata (Leguminoseae) shows cytotoxic effects against cancer cells; however, its active components remain unclear. Objective This study investigated the antitumour activity of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside (POS) on the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. Materials and methods The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of POS (at 10, 20 and 40?μM) in vitro, and xenograft nude mice were established to evaluate the antitumour effect of POS (at 40?mg/kg/d) in vivo by 15 days intraperitoneal injection (ip). To explore its mechanism of action, flow cytometry was performed to determine the pro-apoptotic effect of POS (at 10, 20 and 40?μM). Subsequently, the expression of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax in A549 cells were determined. Results POS showed significant cytotoxicity toward A549 cells (p?0.05) by inducing apoptosis. Treatment with POS significantly upregulated the levels of caspase-3 (p?0.01), caspase-7 (p?0.01), caspase-9 (p?0.01) and Bax (p?0.01) in A549 cells, and Bcl-2 was downregulated (p?0.01). Additionally, the in vivo animal study showed that POS significantly inhibited tumour growth in A549 cells (p?0.01). Conclusion Our study demonstrated the POS has significant antitumour activities. The mechanisms are related to increased levels of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9 and Bax, and reduced levels Bcl-2.
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Species of eucalypts are commonly cultivated for solid wood and pulp products. The expansion of commercially managed eucalypt plantations has chiefly been driven by their rapid growth and suitability for propagation across a very wide variety of sites and climatic conditions. Infection of foliar fungal pathogens of eucalypts is resulting in increasingly negative impacts on commercial forest industries globally. To assist in evaluating this threat, the present study provides a global perspective on foliar pathogens of eucalypts. We treat 110 different genera including species associated with foliar disease symptoms of these hosts. The vast majority of these fungi have been grown in axenic culture, and subjected to DNA sequence analysis, resolving their phylogeny. During the course of this study several new genera and species were encountered, and these are described. New genera include: Lembosiniella (L. eucalyptorum on E. dunnii, Australia), Neosonderhenia (N. eucalypti on E. costata, Australia), Neothyriopsis (N. sphaerospora on E. camaldulensis, South Africa), Neotrichosphaeria (N. eucalypticola on E. deglupta, Australia), Nothotrimmatostroma (N. bifarium on E. dalrympleana, Australia), Nowamyces (incl. Nowamycetaceae fam. nov., N. globulus on E. globulus, Australia), and Walkaminomyces (W. medusae on E. alba, Australia). New species include (all from Australia): Disculoides fraxinoides on E. fraxinoides, Elsinoe piperitae on E. piperita, Fusculina regnans on E. regnans, Marthamyces johnstonii on E. dunnii, Neofusicoccum corticosae on E. corticosa, Neotrimmatostroma dalrympleanae on E. dalrympleana, Nowamyces piperitae on E. piperita, Phaeothyriolum dunnii on E. dunnii, Pseudophloeospora eucalyptigena on E. obliqua, Pseudophloeospora jollyi on Eucalyptus sp., Quambalaria tasmaniae on Eucalyptus sp., Q. rugosae on E. rugosa, Sonderhenia radiata on E. radiata, Teratosphaeria pseudonubilosa on E. globulus and Thyrinula dunnii on E. dunnii. A new name is also proposed for Heteroconium eucalypti as Thyrinula uruguayensis on E. dunnii, Uruguay. Although many of these genera and species are commonly associated with disease problems, several appear to be opportunists developing on stressed or dying tissues. For the majority of these fungi, pathogenicity remains to be determined. This represents an important goal for forest pathologists and biologists in the future. Consequently, this study will promote renewed interest in foliar pathogens of eucalypts, leading to investigations that will provide an improved understanding of the biology of these fungi.
Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Foliar pathogen, New taxa, Taxonomy
Foliar pathogens of eucalypts☆
P.W. Crous,1,2,∗ M.J. Wingfield,2,3 R. Cheewangkoon,4 A.J. Carnegie,5,6 T.I. Burgess,2,7 B.A. Summerell,8 J. Edwards,9,10 P.W.J. Taylor,11 and J.Z. Groenewald1
Rationale and Objectives
We describe a step-by-step procedure for estimating power and sample size for planned multireader receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies that will be analyzed using either the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz (DBM) or Obuchowski-Rockette (OR) method. This procedure updates previous approaches by incorporating recent methodological developments and unifies the approaches by allowing inputs to be conjectured parameter values or outputs from either a DBM or OR pilot-study analysis.
Materials and Methods
Power computations are described in a step-by-step procedure and the theoretical basis for the procedure is described. Updates include using the currently recommended denominator degrees of freedom, accounting for different pilot and planned study normal-to-abnormal case ratios, and a new method for computing the OR test-by-reader variance component.
Using a real data set we illustrate how to compute the power for two planned studies, one having the same normal-to-abnormal case ratio as the pilot study and the other having a different ratio. In a simulation study we show that the proposed procedure gives mean power estimates close to the true power.
Application of the updated procedure is straightforward. It is important that pilot data be comparable to the planned study with respect to the modalities, reader expertise, and case selection. Variability of the power estimates warrants further investigation.
ROC curve, sample size, power, multireader
Power Estimation for Multireader ROC Methods: An Updated and Unified Approach
Stephen L. Hillis Center for Research in the Implementaion of Innovative Strategies in Practice (CRIISP), Iowa City VA Medical Center, Iowa City, IA Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA Nancy A. Obuchowski Department of Quantitative Health Sciences/JJN3, and the Imaging Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH Kevin S. Berbaum Department of Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
2012 Feb 1
Understanding the demographic history of introduced populations is essential for unravelling their invasive potential and adaptability to a novel environment. To this end, levels of genetic diversity within the native and invasive range of a species are often compared. Most studies, however, focus solely on contemporary samples, relying heavily on the premise that the historic population structure within the native range has been maintained over time. Here, we assess this assumption by conducting a three‐way comparison of the genetic diversity of native (historic and contemporary) and invasive (contemporary) smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) populations. Analyses of a total of 572 M. dolomieu samples, representing the contemporary invasive South African range, contemporary and historical native USA range (dating back to the 1930s when these fish were first introduced into South Africa), revealed that the historical native range had higher genetic diversity levels when compared to both contemporary native and invasive ranges. These results suggest that both contemporary populations experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Furthermore, the invasive range displayed significant population structure, whereas both historical and contemporary native US populations revealed higher levels of admixture. Comparison of contemporary and historical samples showed both a historic introduction of M. dolomieu and a more recent introduction, thereby demonstrating that undocumented introductions of this species have occurred. Although multiple introductions might have contributed to the high levels of genetic diversity in the invaded range, we discuss alternative factors that may have been responsible for the elevated levels of genetic diversity and highlight the importance of incorporating historic specimens into demographic analyses.
demographic history, genetic bottleneck, genetic diversity, historic DNA, invasive, multiple introductions, sampling design
The ghost of introduction past: Spatial and temporal variability in the genetic diversity of invasive smallmouth bass
Genevieve Diedericks,corresponding author 1 , 2 Romina Henriques, 3 Sophie von der Heyden, 2 Olaf L. F. Weyl, 4 , 5 and Cang Hui 6 , 7