(2S)-5-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-7-yl 6-O-[(2R,3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2-furanyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-[[6-O-[(2R,3R,4R)-tetrahydro-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furanyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-, (2S)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
949.9±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:116271-35-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Methylphenidate is the first-choice treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. The cognitive effects of methylphenidate have been extensively studied, but little is known about its effects on spontaneous social behavior. During adolescence, rats display a characteristic, highly vigorous form of social behavior, termed social play behavior, which is of critical importance for social and cognitive development. We investigated the neurobehavioral mechanisms by which methylphenidate affects social play behavior in rats. Methylphenidate (0.3-3.0 mg/kg, s.c. or p.o.) abolished social play behavior, without altering general social interest. This effect of methylphenidate did not depend upon the baseline level of social play and was not secondary to changes in locomotion. Furthermore, the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate was not subject to tolerance or sensitization. Methylphenidate blocked both the initiation to play and the responsivity to play initiation. The effect of methylphenidate was mimicked by the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine, which is also used for the treatment of ADHD, and was blocked by an α-2 adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, combined administration of subeffective doses of methylphenidate and atomoxetine suppressed social play. However, blockade of α-1 adrenoceptors, β-adrenoceptors, or dopamine receptors did not alter the effect of methylphenidate. These data show that methylphenidate selectively blocks the most vigorous part of the behavioral repertoire of adolescent rats through a noradrenergic mechanism. We suggest that the effect of methylphenidate on social play is a reflection of its therapeutic effect in ADHD, that is, improved behavioral inhibition. However, given the importance of social play for development, these findings may also indicate an adverse side effect of methylphenidate.
social behavior, adolescent, methylphenidate, atomoxetine, α-2 adrenoceptor, behavioral inhibition
Methylphenidate Disrupts Social Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats
Louk JMJ Vanderschuren,*,1,2 Viviana Trezza,1 Sanne Griffioen-Roose,1 Olga JG Schiepers,2 Natascha Van Leeuwen,1 Taco J De Vries,2 and Anton NM Schoffelmeer2
2009 Nov 1.
The genus Calonectria with its Cylindrocladium asexual morphs has been subject to several taxonomic revisions in the past. These have resulted in the recognition of 116 species, of which all but two species (C. hederae and C. pyrochroa) are supported by ex-type cultures and supplemented with DNA barcodes. The present study is based on a large collection of unidentified Calonectria isolates that have been collected over a period of 20 years from various substrates worldwide, which has remained unstudied in the basement of the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre. Employing a polyphasic approach, the identities of these isolates were resolved and shown to represent many new phylogenetic species. Of these, 24 are newly described, while C. uniseptata is reinstated at species level. We now recognise 141 species that include some of the most important plant pathogens globally.
Cylindrocladium, Cryptic species, Phylogeny, Taxonomy
The forgotten Calonectria collection: Pouring old wine into new bags
L. Lombard,1,? M.J. Wingfield,2 A.C. Alfenas,3 and P.W. Crous1,2,4,?
This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group’s taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (Aphonopelma apacheum, Aphonopelma minchi, Aphonopelma rothi, Aphonopelma schmidti, Aphonopelma stahnkei = Aphonopelma chalcodes; Aphonopelma arnoldi = Aphonopelma armada; Aphonopelma behlei, Aphonopelma vogelae = Aphonopelma marxi; Aphonopelma breenei = Aphonopelma anax; Aphonopelma chambersi, Aphonopelma clarum, Aphonopelma cryptethum, Aphonopelma sandersoni, Aphonopelma sullivani = Aphonopelma eutylenum; Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, Aphonopelma wichitanum = Aphonopelma hentzi; Aphonopelma heterops = Aphonopelma moderatum; Aphonopelma jungi, Aphonopelma punzoi = Aphonopelma vorhiesi; Aphonopelma brunnius, Aphonopelma chamberlini, Aphonopelma iviei, Aphonopelma lithodomum, Aphonopelma smithi, Aphonopelma zionis = Aphonopelma iodius; Aphonopelma phanum, Aphonopelma reversum = Aphonopelma steindachneri), 14 new species (Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., Aphonopelma catalina sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua sp. n., Aphonopelma icenoglei sp. n., Aphonopelma johnnycashi sp. n., Aphonopelma madera sp. n., Aphonopelma mareki sp. n., Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n., Aphonopelma parvum sp. n., Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n., Aphonopelma prenticei sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro sp. n., Aphonopelma superstitionense sp. n., and Aphonopelma xwalxwal sp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (Aphonopelma baergi, Aphonopelma cratium, Aphonopelma hollyi, Aphonopelma mordax, Aphonopelma radinum, Aphonopelma rusticum, Aphonopelma texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.
Biodiversity, New species, Conservation, Molecular systematics, DNA taxonomy, DNA barcoding, Spider taxonomy
Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States
Chris A. Hamilton,1 Brent E. Hendrixson,2 and Jason E. Bond1