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The study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing wheat bran for cactus cladodes plus urea (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) on the intake of nutrients, nitrogen balance, microbial protein synthesis, and rumen fermentation for steers.
Five crossbred steers (1/2 Holstein-Zebu), with rumen cannula and an average body weight of 180±5.3 kg, were assigned to a 5×5 Latin square design. Dietary treatments consisted of the replacement of the total of wheat bran in basal diet by cactus cladodes using the following proportions: 0% for basal diet, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% cactus cladodes replacing wheat bran. Urea was added to the diets to adjust the crude protein (CP) content to 130 g/kg dry matter.
Maximum dry matter intake (5.73 kg/d) and maximum nitrogen balance (103 g/d) were estimated for 54.6% and 70.8% replacement levels of wheat bran. The maximum microbial protein production (44.6 g/d) was obtained at a replacement level of 49.7%, and a medium value (125 g CP mic/kg total digestible nutrients) of microbial protein efficiency was observed. The rumen pH increased linearly according to cactus cladodes inclusion, while the ammonia nitrogen medium value was 24.5 mg/dL.
The replacement of 55% wheat bran for cactus cladodes plus urea in the diet of crossbred steers is recommended.
Degradable Ruminal Nitrogen, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Ruminal Fermentation, Cactus Cladodes
Can cactus (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw) cladodes plus urea replace wheat bran in steers’ diet?
Maria Gabriela da Conceic?o,1 Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira,1 Janaina de Lima Silva,2 Cleber Thiago Ferreira Costa,3 Juana Catarina Cariri Chagas,1,* and Carolina Corr?a de Figueiredo Monteiro4
Cirsiliol is a flavone found in many Lamiaceae species with high cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. Although cirsiliol is being used in cancer therapy, its pharmacological potential is limited by its low solubility and bioavailability. In this paper, a cirsiliol-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was developed in order to increase its solubility and bioavailability. The formation of inclusion complex was proved by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and solubility increment was verified through the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) method. The cytotoxic effect against tumor cells (PC3, HCT-116 and HL-60 human cell lines, and S-180 murine cell line) and the antitumor activity in mice bearing sarcoma S-180 were also investigated. The inclusion complex was obtained with 71.45% of total recovery and solubility 2.1 times higher compared to the compound in its free form. This increment in solubility was responsible by a tumor growth inhibition potentiation (1.5 times greater compared to compound in its free form). In addition, this study showed that cirsiliol and its inclusion complex in β-cyclodextrin have strong antitumor potential at low doses without promoting side effects commonly observed for conventional drugs as doxorubicin.
Pharmaceutical chemistry, Pharmaceutical science, Lamiaceae, Flavone, Inclusion complexes, Antitumor effect
β-Cyclodextrin complex improves the bioavailability and antitumor potential of cirsiliol, a flavone isolated from Leonotis nepetifolia (Lamiaceae)
Ana P. Oliveira,a,b Andressa L.N. Silva,a Lucas G.F.C. Viana,a Mariana G. Silva,a,b erica M. Lavor,a,b Raimundo G. Oliveira-J?nior,a Edilson B. Alencar-Filho,a Ricardo S. Lima,a Rosemairy L. Mendes,a Larissa A. Rolim,a,b Debora S.C. Anjos,c Leslie R.M. Ferraz,d Pedro J. Rolim-Neto,d Maria F.S. Silva,e Claudia do o. Pessoa,e and Jackson R.G.S. Almeidaa,b,?
In this study, mechanical mixtures of sugarcane bagasse and iron salts (nitrate, acetate, or a mixture of both) were subjected to thermal decomposition for producing iron oxide and carbonaceous composite materials, which were evaluated as adsorbents for removing dyes from water using methylene blue (MB) as a model system. Aiming to optimize the conditions for obtaining composite adsorbents, the Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effects of mass sugarcane bagasse/mass iron salt, type of mixture of sugarcane bagasse/iron salt, and temperature on the response to be obtained (adsorption capacity, qe) before the execution of the adsorption tests. The synthesized composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The relationship between the characteristics of different materials, based on the processing of statistical data and the results of the adsorption tests, helped determine the routes that led to formation of composites with the most suitable properties for the removal of MB dye. Different phases, such as magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and iron carbide (Fe3C), were formed. The composites that presented the highest qe values were SB/IN 1:1 (600°C) and SB/IN-IA 1:2 (400°C). The first, which contained iron carbide (Fe3C), according to the XRD results, also showed larger BET surface area than the other composites. These properties may have contributed to the higher MB adsorption efficiency of this material in aqueous medium. The sample SB/IN-IA 1:2 (400°C) had lower specific area and was composed of magnetite and/or maghemite phases. In this case, the high qe was probably associated with the surface properties promoted by combination with the carbonaceous material, favoring interactions with MB.
Optimization of the Production Parameters of Composites from Sugarcane Bagasse and Iron Salts for Use in Dye Adsorption
Carine Pereira da Silva, 1 Marluce Oliveira da Guarda Souza,corresponding author 2 Walter Nei Lopes dos Santos, 2 and Laiana Oliveira Bastos Silva 3