Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Hemsl.
Rebaudioside B is the minor constituent isolated from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Rebaudioside B tastes about 150 times sweeter than sucrose .
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The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may forecast colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes, but the evidence is not conclusive. Here, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at the First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO). We also conducted a meta-analysis of eleven cohort studies. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to determine the optimal PNI cut-off values for classifying prognosis in the patients from the CMU-SO. The result from CMU-SO and meta-analysis both confirmed that low PNI was significantly associated with a poor prognosis and advanced TNM stages. Among the patients from the CMU-SO, the optimal cut-off values were “41-45-58” (PNI < 41, 41 ≤ PNI < 45, 45 ≤ PNI < 58, PNI ≥ 58), which divided patients into 4 stages. The BIC value for TNM staging combined with the PNI was smaller than that of TNM staging alone (−325.76 vs. −310.80). In conclusion, low PNI was predictive of a poor prognosis and was associated with clinicopathological features in patients with CRC, and the 41-45-58 four-stage division may be suitable for determining prognosis. PNI may thus provide an additional index for use along with the current TNM staging system to determine more accurate CRC prognoses.
colorectal cancer, meta-analysis, prognostic nutritional index, prognosis, TNM staging
Prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in colorectal cancer: results from a retrospective cohort study and a meta-analysis
Yuchong Yang,#1 Peng Gao,#1 Xiaowan Chen,1 Yongxi Song,1 Jinxin Shi,1 Junhua Zhao,1 Jingxu Sun,1 Yingying Xu,2 and Zhenning Wang1
2016 Sep 6
Clarifying the phylogeny of animals is fundamental to understanding their evolution. Traditionally, sponges have been considered the sister group of all other extant animals, but recent genomic studies have suggested comb jellies occupy that position instead. Here, we analyzed the current genomic evidence from comb jellies and found no convincing support for this hypothesis. Instead, when analyzed with appropriate methods, recent genomic data support the traditional hypothesis. We conclude that the alternative scenario of animal evolution according to which ctenophores evolved morphological complexity independently from cnidarians and bilaterians or, alternatively, sponges secondarily lost a nervous system, muscles, and other characters, is not supported by the available evidence.
Metazoa, Ctenophora, Porifera, phylogenomics, evolution
Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals
Davide Pisani,a,b,1 Walker Pett,c Martin Dohrmann,d Roberto Feuda,e Omar Rota-Stabelli,f Herve Philippe,g,h Nicolas Lartillot,c and Gert Worheided,i,1
2015 Dec 15
In 2001, the U.S. government released a rule that allowed states to “opt-out” of the federal requirement that a physician supervise the administration of anesthesia by a nurse anesthetist. To date, 17 states have opted out. The majority of the opt-out states cited increased access to anesthesia care as the primary rationale for their decision. In this study, we assess the impact of state opt-out policy on access to and costs of surgeries and other procedures requiring anesthesia services. Our null hypothesis is that opt-out rule adoption had little or no effect on surgery access or costs. We estimate an inpatient model of surgeries and costs and an outpatient model of surgeries. Each model uses data from multiple years of U.S. inpatient hospital discharges and outpatient surgeries. For inpatient cost models, the coefficient of the opt-out variable was consistently positive and also statistically significant in most model specifications. In terms of access to inpatient surgical care, the opt-out rules did not increase or decrease access in opt-out states. The results for the outpatient access models are less consistent, with some model specifications indicating a reduction in access associated with opt-out status, while other model specifications suggesting no discernable change in access. Given the sensitivity of model findings to changes in model specification, the results do not provide support for the belief that opt-out policy improves access to outpatient surgical care, and may even reduce access to outpatient surgical care (among freestanding facilities).
Assessing the impact of state “opt-out” policy on access to and costs of surgeries and other procedures requiring anesthesia services
John E. Schneider,1 Robert Ohsfeldt,2 Pengxiang Li,3 Thomas R. Miller,4 and Cara Scheiblingcorresponding author5